Abstract

Incorporating an electro-optic modulator with a conventional optical streak camera extends the spectral range of the streak camera from the optical region (UV, visible, and near-IR) to the terahertz region (far-IR and millimeter-wave) with a minimum modification. We demonstrate the temporal measurement of freely propagating terahertz pulses with single-shot capability.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, and C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. P. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1997); Opt. Lett. 23, 1114 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. G. Sun, Z. P. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2223 (1998).
  11. M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Lett. 22, 1436 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Drabbels, G. M. Lankhuijzen, and L. D. Noordam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2138 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1797 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Chang and C. N. Vittitoe, in Fast Electrical and Optical Measurement, J. E. Thompson and L. H. Luessen, eds., NATO ASI Ser.108, 57 (1983).
  15. S. Williamson and G. Mourou, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, G. A. Mourou, D. M. Bloom, and C.-H. Lee, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 58.
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. P. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

F. G. Sun, Z. P. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2223 (1998).

M. Drabbels, G. M. Lankhuijzen, and L. D. Noordam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

Z. P. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1997); Opt. Lett. 23, 1114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Lett. 22, 1436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, and C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D.

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

J. Chang and C. N. Vittitoe, in Fast Electrical and Optical Measurement, J. E. Thompson and L. H. Luessen, eds., NATO ASI Ser.108, 57 (1983).

Chen, Q.

Z. P. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DeFonzo, A. P.

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, and C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Drabbels, M.

M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Drabbels, G. M. Lankhuijzen, and L. D. Noordam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Lett. 22, 1436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grischowsky, D.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. Y.

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jarwala, M.

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, and C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. P.

Z. P. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. P. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2223 (1998).

Z. P. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1997); Opt. Lett. 23, 1114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lankhuijzen, G. M.

M. Drabbels, G. M. Lankhuijzen, and L. D. Noordam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, C. R.

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, and C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Williamson and G. Mourou, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, G. A. Mourou, D. M. Bloom, and C.-H. Lee, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 58.
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noordam, L. D.

M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Drabbels, G. M. Lankhuijzen, and L. D. Noordam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Lett. 22, 1436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schya, V.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. R.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stancampiano, C. V.

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. G.

Z. P. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. P. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2223 (1998).

Vittitoe, C. N.

J. Chang and C. N. Vittitoe, in Fast Electrical and Optical Measurement, J. E. Thompson and L. H. Luessen, eds., NATO ASI Ser.108, 57 (1983).

Williamson, S.

S. Williamson and G. Mourou, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, G. A. Mourou, D. M. Bloom, and C.-H. Lee, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 58.
[CrossRef]

Winnewisser, C.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Z. P. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. P. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2223 (1998).

Z. P. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1997); Opt. Lett. 23, 1114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

G. Mourou, C. V. Stancampiano, and D. Blumenthal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 470 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, and C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1997); Opt. Lett. 23, 1114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. P. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2223 (1998).

M. Drabbels and L. D. Noordam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Drabbels, G. M. Lankhuijzen, and L. D. Noordam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schya, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, Phys. Rev. E 53, 3052 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Chang and C. N. Vittitoe, in Fast Electrical and Optical Measurement, J. E. Thompson and L. H. Luessen, eds., NATO ASI Ser.108, 57 (1983).

S. Williamson and G. Mourou, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, G. A. Mourou, D. M. Bloom, and C.-H. Lee, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 58.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measuring principle of the EO THz streak camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of THz pulse measurement by the EO streak camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal waveforms of THz pulses measured by the EO THz streak camera with a ZnTe crystal as the converter. Both the background and the signal are shown. (a), (c) Average results with a single THz pulse and a pair of THz pulses, respectively. (b), (d) The corresponding single-shot results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two THz pulses measured by the streak camera. The timing of one pulse is fixed; the timing of the other pulse is changed in step sizes of (a) 3.3 ps and (b) 0.67 ps.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=I0η+sin2Γ0+Γ,
Γ=πdn3γ41λE,
II0η+Γ02+I02Γ0Γ+Γ2Ib+Is.
αIsIbΓ2η=2.7×10-3 E2,

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