Abstract

Second-harmonic radiation has been obtained from Langmuir–Blodgett films of EN-octadecyl-4-[2-(4-dibutylaminophenyl)ethenyl]quinolinium octadecylsulfate, deposited as a waveguide overlay upon optical fiber that is single mode at the pump wavelength λ=1064 nm. A quadratic relationship between the pump power and second-harmonic intensity was observed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).
  2. G. J. Ashwell, “Langmuir–Blodgett films:?molecular engineering of non-centrosymmetric structures for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).
  3. T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, Nature 367, 49 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Clays, T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, and D. R. Robello, Proc. SPIE 1775, 326 (1992); T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, D. R. Robello, and A. Ulman, Nonlinear Opt. 4, 191 (1993); K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Bosshard, M. Flörsheimer, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, Opt. Commun. 85, 247 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Asai, H. Tamada, I. Fujiwara, and J. Seto, J. Appl. Phys. 10, 4521 (1992); I. Fujiwara, N. Asai, and V. Howarth, Thin Solid Films 221, 285 (1992); N. Asai, I. Fujiwara, H. Tamada, and J. Seto, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328, 91 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Flannery, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Opt. Lett. 22, 567 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Opt. 13, 1363 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, Electron Lett. 24, 805 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. S. Johal, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 60 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Sharma, J. Kompella, and P. K. Mishra, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1999

S. S. Johal, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, Nature 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

N. Asai, H. Tamada, I. Fujiwara, and J. Seto, J. Appl. Phys. 10, 4521 (1992); I. Fujiwara, N. Asai, and V. Howarth, Thin Solid Films 221, 285 (1992); N. Asai, I. Fujiwara, H. Tamada, and J. Seto, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Clays, T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, and D. R. Robello, Proc. SPIE 1775, 326 (1992); T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, D. R. Robello, and A. Ulman, Nonlinear Opt. 4, 191 (1993); K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. Bosshard, M. Flörsheimer, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, Opt. Commun. 85, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, and P. K. Mishra, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, Electron Lett. 24, 805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974

Althoff, O.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, N. J.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, Nature 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Clays, T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, and D. R. Robello, Proc. SPIE 1775, 326 (1992); T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, D. R. Robello, and A. Ulman, Nonlinear Opt. 4, 191 (1993); K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asai, N.

N. Asai, H. Tamada, I. Fujiwara, and J. Seto, J. Appl. Phys. 10, 4521 (1992); I. Fujiwara, N. Asai, and V. Howarth, Thin Solid Films 221, 285 (1992); N. Asai, I. Fujiwara, H. Tamada, and J. Seto, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

S. S. Johal, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Flannery, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Opt. Lett. 22, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, “Langmuir–Blodgett films:?molecular engineering of non-centrosymmetric structures for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

Bosshard, C.

C. Bosshard, M. Flörsheimer, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, Opt. Commun. 85, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Charters, R. B.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clays, K.

K. Clays, T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, and D. R. Robello, Proc. SPIE 1775, 326 (1992); T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, D. R. Robello, and A. Ulman, Nonlinear Opt. 4, 191 (1993); K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ezenyilimba, M. C.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, Nature 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Falk, U.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, D.

Flörsheimer, M.

C. Bosshard, M. Flörsheimer, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, Opt. Commun. 85, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Fujiwara, I.

N. Asai, H. Tamada, I. Fujiwara, and J. Seto, J. Appl. Phys. 10, 4521 (1992); I. Fujiwara, N. Asai, and V. Howarth, Thin Solid Films 221, 285 (1992); N. Asai, I. Fujiwara, H. Tamada, and J. Seto, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

C. Bosshard, M. Flörsheimer, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, Opt. Commun. 85, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Hickel, W.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Hussey, C. D.

C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, Electron Lett. 24, 805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. S. Johal, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Flannery, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Opt. Lett. 22, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johal, S. S.

S. S. Johal, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaatz, P.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Knoesen, A.

R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kompella, J.

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, and P. K. Mishra, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kowel, S. T.

R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kuczynski, A. P.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Küpfer, M.

C. Bosshard, M. Flörsheimer, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, Opt. Commun. 85, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lam, J. Y. S.

R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leminger, O. G.

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lupo, D.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Menges, B.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Minelly, J. D.

C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, Electron Lett. 24, 805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, P. K.

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, and P. K. Mishra, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moon, T. K.

R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Motschmann, H. R.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, Nature 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Penner, T. L.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, Nature 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Clays, T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, and D. R. Robello, Proc. SPIE 1775, 326 (1992); T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, D. R. Robello, and A. Ulman, Nonlinear Opt. 4, 191 (1993); K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prêtre, P.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Ramaswamy, V.

Robello, D. R.

K. Clays, T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, and D. R. Robello, Proc. SPIE 1775, 326 (1992); T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, D. R. Robello, and A. Ulman, Nonlinear Opt. 4, 191 (1993); K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scheunemann, U.

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Selfridge, R. H.

R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seto, J.

N. Asai, H. Tamada, I. Fujiwara, and J. Seto, J. Appl. Phys. 10, 4521 (1992); I. Fujiwara, N. Asai, and V. Howarth, Thin Solid Films 221, 285 (1992); N. Asai, I. Fujiwara, H. Tamada, and J. Seto, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A.

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, and P. K. Mishra, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Staines, S. E.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroeve, P.

R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

Tamada, H.

N. Asai, H. Tamada, I. Fujiwara, and J. Seto, J. Appl. Phys. 10, 4521 (1992); I. Fujiwara, N. Asai, and V. Howarth, Thin Solid Films 221, 285 (1992); N. Asai, I. Fujiwara, H. Tamada, and J. Seto, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. S. Johal, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Flannery, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Opt. Lett. 22, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, Nature 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron Lett.

C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, Electron Lett. 24, 805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Asai, H. Tamada, I. Fujiwara, and J. Seto, J. Appl. Phys. 10, 4521 (1992); I. Fujiwara, N. Asai, and V. Howarth, Thin Solid Films 221, 285 (1992); N. Asai, I. Fujiwara, H. Tamada, and J. Seto, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, and P. K. Mishra, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. S. Johal, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, Nature 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Bosshard, M. Flörsheimer, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, Opt. Commun. 85, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

R. H. Selfridge, T. K. Moon, P. Stroeve, J. Y. S. Lam, S. T. Kowel, and A. Knoesen, Proc. SPIE 971, 197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Clays, T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, and D. R. Robello, Proc. SPIE 1775, 326 (1992); T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, D. R. Robello, and A. Ulman, Nonlinear Opt. 4, 191 (1993); K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

W. Hickel, B. Menges, O. Althoff, D. Lupo, U. Falk, and U. Scheunemann, Thin Solid Films 244, 966 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vol. 1 of Advances in Optics, A. F. Garito and F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Basel, Switzerland, 1995).

G. J. Ashwell, “Langmuir–Blodgett films:?molecular engineering of non-centrosymmetric structures for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the Čerenkov-type configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the fiber-optic device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Molecular structure of the quinolinium dye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized spectral response from 184 Z-type layers of the quinolinium dye deposited upon the side-polished single-mode optical fiber; maximum coupling to the film occurs at 1064 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the SHG apparatus: F(vis)’s, visible filters; F(IR)’s, IR filters; F(532)’s, 532-nm bandpass filters; M(IR), IR mirror; PMT’s, photomultiplier tubes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SHG versus fiber transmission. Constant pump power coupled into the fiber with thermal tuning of λm causes the power coupled to the LB overlay to change.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SHG versus fiber coupled pump power at constant temperature, T=21.4 C°.

Equations (1)

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2πdλmno2-neff2=Φa+Φcl,

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