Abstract

We demonstrate a novel frequency-domain-multiplexing technique for implementing polarimetric fiber laser current sensors. Each sensor operates at a different polarization-mode beat frequency that is modulated in response to applied electric current. A bank of bandpass filters can be used to separate signals from different sensors. A simple frequency-demodulation technique based on a phase-locked loop is used for signal processing.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, and S. M. Etzel, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1031 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. C. Pistoni and M. Martinelli, Opt. Lett. 18, 314 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1882 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. E. Fisher and D. A. Jackson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 1099 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, and J. Blake, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), p. 276.
  6. J. S. Park, S. H. Yun, S. J. Ahn, and B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 21, 1029 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1882 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, and S. M. Etzel, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. J.

Blake, J.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, and J. Blake, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), p. 276.

Claus, R. O.

X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1882 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Day, G. W.

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, and S. M. Etzel, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Carvalho, R. T.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, and J. Blake, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), p. 276.

Etzel, S. M.

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, and S. M. Etzel, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1882 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, N. E.

N. E. Fisher and D. A. Jackson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

N. E. Fisher and D. A. Jackson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Park, S. H. Yun, S. J. Ahn, and B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 21, 1029 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. L.

M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

May, R. G.

X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1882 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Park, S. H. Yun, S. J. Ahn, and B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 21, 1029 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pistoni, N. C.

Rose, A. H.

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, and S. M. Etzel, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Russell, B. D.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, and J. Blake, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), p. 276.

Short, S. X.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, and J. Blake, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), p. 276.

Tang, D.

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, and S. M. Etzel, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tantaswadi, P.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, and J. Blake, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), p. 276.

Wang, A.

X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1882 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Park, S. H. Yun, S. J. Ahn, and B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 21, 1029 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

D. Tang, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, and S. M. Etzel, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, A. Wang, R. G. May, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1882 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

N. E. Fisher and D. A. Jackson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 1099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. S. Park, W. J. Lee, S. H. Yun, Y. H. Lee, and B. Y. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, and J. Blake, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1996), p. 276.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) a polarimetric fiber laser current sensor and (b) a current-sensor array: GM’s, gain media; SA, saturable absorber; P’s, polarizers; PD’s, photodetectors; SP’s, signal processors; H, magnetic field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of a current-sensor array and a signal processor: BPF1, BPF2, bandpass filters; PLL1, PLL2, phase-locked loops.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

rf spectrum of the photodetector output when no electrical current was applied. The noise-equivalent bandwidth is 18 kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output voltage of the signal processor as a function of the magnitude of the applied current at 60 Hz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output of the PLL signal processors when an ac of 2.0 Arms at 60 Hz was applied: (a) waveforms; (b), (c) rf spectra of the two sensors.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Experimental Parameters of the Fiber Lasers

Equations (1)

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Δfp2αF/πfFSR

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