Abstract

Mid-infrared radiation near 2.8 µm was generated by difference-frequency generation in an 80-mm-long periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by pump radiation near 1.55 µm (tunable external-cavity laser) and a signal radiation of 3.391 µm (He–Ne laser). We obtained a normalized conversion efficiency of 105% W-1, which is to our knowledge the highest value ever reported.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 66, 531 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Sohler, in New Directions in Guided Wave and Coherent Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky and E. Spitz, Vol. 79 of NATO Advanced Study Institute Series (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1984), Vol. II, pp. 449–479.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Herrmann and W. Sohler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 278 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Bamford, K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, and S. J. Field, presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 4–9, Baltimore, Md.
  5. M. A. Arbore, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper JTuE2; in Annual Report 1995–96 (Center for Nonlinear Optical Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1996), paper A.4.
  6. K. Nakamura, H. Ando, and H. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1413 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. H. Jundt, Opt. Lett. 22, 1553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (3)

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 66, 531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Herrmann and W. Sohler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 278 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

K. Nakamura, H. Ando, and H. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ando, H.

K. Nakamura, H. Ando, and H. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

M. A. Arbore, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper JTuE2; in Annual Report 1995–96 (Center for Nonlinear Optical Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1996), paper A.4.

Bamford, D. J.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, and S. J. Field, presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 4–9, Baltimore, Md.

Bava, G. P.

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bortz, M. L.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brillert, C.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

M. A. Arbore, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper JTuE2; in Annual Report 1995–96 (Center for Nonlinear Optical Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1996), paper A.4.

Curl, R. F.

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 66, 531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arbore, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper JTuE2; in Annual Report 1995–96 (Center for Nonlinear Optical Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1996), paper A.4.

Field, S. J.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, and S. J. Field, presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 4–9, Baltimore, Md.

Flörsheimer, M.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H.

Hertz, H. M.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heuer, L.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, and S. J. Field, presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 4–9, Baltimore, Md.

Jundt, D. H.

Kubitschek, U.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lim, E. J.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, H. Ando, and H. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, T. L.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, and S. J. Field, presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 4–9, Baltimore, Md.

Petrov, K. P.

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 66, 531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, and S. J. Field, presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 4–9, Baltimore, Md.

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, A. T.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, and S. J. Field, presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 4–9, Baltimore, Md.

Schreiber, G.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, H.

K. Nakamura, H. Ando, and H. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Herrmann and W. Sohler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 278 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Sohler, in New Directions in Guided Wave and Coherent Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky and E. Spitz, Vol. 79 of NATO Advanced Study Institute Series (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1984), Vol. II, pp. 449–479.
[CrossRef]

Strake, E.

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 66, 531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, C.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 66, 531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitschek, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Regener and W. Sohler, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, H. Ando, and H. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

D. J. Bamford, K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, and S. J. Field, presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Optical Society of America, October 4–9, Baltimore, Md.

M. A. Arbore, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper JTuE2; in Annual Report 1995–96 (Center for Nonlinear Optical Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1996), paper A.4.

W. Sohler, in New Directions in Guided Wave and Coherent Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky and E. Spitz, Vol. 79 of NATO Advanced Study Institute Series (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1984), Vol. II, pp. 449–479.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electrode structures on Z-cut LiNbO3. a, Combination of periodically structured metal and liquid electrodes upon the +Z face; the electrode fingers are interconnected (not shown). b, Periodically structured liquid electrode upon the +Z face.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: ECL, external-cavity laser; EDFA, Er-doped fiber amplifier; He–Ne, He–Ne laser; CH, mechanical beam chopper; DM, dichroic mirror; Ge, germanium filter; PbS/PbSe, lead sulfide or lead selenide photoconductive detector. Inset, surface of a periodically poled and chemically etched Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Idler power versus pump wavelength in a 20µm-wide Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide with a quasi-phase-matched period of 31.4 µm: solid curve, experiment; dashed curve, theory. The theoretical response is calculated with 2-mW pump power, 110µW signal power, an 80-mm interaction length, and attenuations of 0.03 dB cm-1 for signal and idler and 0.1 dB cm-1 for pump.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated tuning curves (solid curves) at fixed temperatures of 70 and 110 °C together with experimental data (70, 80, 90, 100, and 110 °C) at a fixed signal wavelength λS=3.391 µm obtained by DFG in a 30µm wide, 50-mm-long Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide with a quasi-phase-matched period of 31.2 µm.

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