Abstract

It is numerically demonstrated that on-axis current channeling through the use of a photoactive layer or layers in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser cavities counteracts hole burning and allows single-mode operation at high currents. The photoactive layers act as a variable-resistivity screen whose radial aperture is controlled by the light itself. Absorption of a small fraction of the light intensity suffices for significant on-axis current peaking with minimum efficiency loss and optical mode distortion.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkouchi, and T. Nishimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. L. Gourley and T. J. Drummond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1225 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Michalzik and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1963 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Huffaker, D. G. Deppe, K. Kummar, and T. J. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 97 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and K. M. Geib, Electron. Lett. 30, 2043 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Riyopoulos, “Single mode VCSEL with photoactive current channeling,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

1994

D. L. Huffaker, D. G. Deppe, K. Kummar, and T. J. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and K. M. Geib, Electron. Lett. 30, 2043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Michalzik and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. L. Gourley and T. J. Drummond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkouchi, and T. Nishimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and K. M. Geib, Electron. Lett. 30, 2043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

D. L. Huffaker, D. G. Deppe, K. Kummar, and T. J. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, T. J.

P. L. Gourley and T. J. Drummond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

R. Michalzik and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Geib, K. M.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and K. M. Geib, Electron. Lett. 30, 2043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gourley, P. L.

P. L. Gourley and T. J. Drummond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huffaker, D. L.

D. L. Huffaker, D. G. Deppe, K. Kummar, and T. J. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkouchi, and T. Nishimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, S.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkouchi, and T. Nishimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kummar, K.

D. L. Huffaker, D. G. Deppe, K. Kummar, and T. J. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and K. M. Geib, Electron. Lett. 30, 2043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Michalzik, R.

R. Michalzik and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, T.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkouchi, and T. Nishimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ohkouchi, S.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkouchi, and T. Nishimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Riyopoulos, S.

S. Riyopoulos, “Single mode VCSEL with photoactive current channeling,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Rogers, T. J.

D. L. Huffaker, D. G. Deppe, K. Kummar, and T. J. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. P.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and K. M. Geib, Electron. Lett. 30, 2043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkouchi, and T. Nishimura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Gourley and T. J. Drummond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Huffaker, D. G. Deppe, K. Kummar, and T. J. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 97 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and K. M. Geib, Electron. Lett. 30, 2043 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Michalzik and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1963 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Riyopoulos, “Single mode VCSEL with photoactive current channeling,” submitted to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of a mesa structure VCSEL cavity with symmetrically placed photoactive layers. w marks the waist of the radiation envelope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Steady-state radiation power distribution in each mode versus operating current (a) in a VCSEL with photoactive current channeling and (b) for standard VCSEL operation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rms radiation spot size, normalized to the fundamental-mode waist w0, versus operating current for standard operation (solid curve), with one pair of photoactive layers (short-dashed curve) and with two pairs (long-dashed curve).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameter Values Used for the Numerical Results

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Jr=i0expeV-JR2κT-1,
R=l/enμ.
np=χ1+χND,χ=IUk2 cos2kzpσγc,
dNdt=Jed-BN2-γcN-kσjN-NgjIjUj2,
1vgjdIjdt=gjζjd2rN-NtjN0Uj2rIj-αj+sjIj+SjgjζjπD2d2rNN0,
αj=ζjdr2Uj2σjND-np,

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