Abstract

It is generally accepted that measurement of the contrast of the intensity interference pattern formed by two counterpropagating evanescent waves can be used to characterize the resolving power of a collection near-field microscope. We argue that, if the light collected by a fiber probe propagates toward a detector in the form of guided fiber modes, then this perception is wrong. Using symmetry arguments and simple calculations, we show that, if an extended fiber probe is axially symmetric and oriented perpendicular to the propagation direction, then the measured contrast should always be equal to the contrast of the interference pattern.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  2. D. Courjon, J. Microsc. 177, 180 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Weber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, Opt. Commun. 126, 285 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. P. Tsai, Z. Wang, and M. Moskovits, Proc. SPIE 1855, 93 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrach, Appl. Opt. 33, 7795 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1997).
  9. M. Gu and P. C. Ke, Opt. Lett. 24, 74 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Courjon, C. Bainier, and F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Opt. 38, 1792 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1997 (3)

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1997).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. C. Weber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, Opt. Commun. 126, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Courjon, J. Microsc. 177, 180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrach, Appl. Opt. 33, 7795 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, and F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. P. Tsai, Z. Wang, and M. Moskovits, Proc. SPIE 1855, 93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F.

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, and F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bainier, C.

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, and F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blome, P. G.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bopp, M. A.

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrach, Appl. Opt. 33, 7795 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Carminati, R.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1997).

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, J. Microsc. 177, 180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, and F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

J. C. Weber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, Opt. Commun. 126, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, Opt. Commun. 126, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1997).

Gregor, M. J.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Ke, P. C.

Meixner, A. J.

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrach, Appl. Opt. 33, 7795 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

D. P. Tsai, Z. Wang, and M. Moskovits, Proc. SPIE 1855, 93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schöfer, J.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tarrach, G.

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrach, Appl. Opt. 33, 7795 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

D. P. Tsai, Z. Wang, and M. Moskovits, Proc. SPIE 1855, 93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ulbrich, R. G.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

Wang, Z.

D. P. Tsai, Z. Wang, and M. Moskovits, Proc. SPIE 1855, 93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weber, J. C.

J. C. Weber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, Opt. Commun. 126, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrach, Appl. Opt. 33, 7795 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Opt. 38, 1792 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. Courjon, J. Microsc. 177, 180 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. C. Weber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, Opt. Commun. 126, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, and F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. P. Tsai, Z. Wang, and M. Moskovits, Proc. SPIE 1855, 93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133 (1997).

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of a collection near-field optical microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Model geometry of a collection microscope used in calculations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average detected power and image contrast as a function of the probe dipole separation Δ for the symmetric γ=0° and the asymmetric γ=45° configurations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image contrast as a function of inclination angle γ for three different dipole separations Δ.

Equations (2)

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Erp,zt=e14π2Fkpexpikp˙rpdkp,
Arpt=14π2HkpFkpexpikp˙rptdkp,

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