Abstract

We describe a new method for imaging in three-dimensional turbid media, laser optical feedback tomography. This technique is based on the resonant sensitivity of a short-cavity laser to frequency-shifted optical feedback from ballistic photons retrodiffused from the medium. The advantage of the method is that the detector is the laser source itself, which provides optical amplification with self-aligned spatial and temporal coherent detection.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1994).
  2. G. J. Dixon, Laser Focus 34(8), 137 (1998)B. Curless and M. Levoy, in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’96 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 303–312.
  3. J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, and M. Yadlowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 226 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Lacot and F. Stoeckel, “Detecteur optique actif,” patent97/12391 (September30, 1997).
  6. E. Molva, Ph. Thony, L. Fulbert, J. Marty, M. Rabarat, and B. Ferrand, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 347.
  7. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  8. K. Otsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1546 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. J. Dixon, Laser Focus 34(8), 137 (1998)B. Curless and M. Levoy, in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’96 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 303–312.

1994 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, and M. Yadlowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1994).

1992 (1)

K. Otsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1546 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1994).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, G. J.

G. J. Dixon, Laser Focus 34(8), 137 (1998)B. Curless and M. Levoy, in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’96 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 303–312.

Ferrand, B.

E. Molva, Ph. Thony, L. Fulbert, J. Marty, M. Rabarat, and B. Ferrand, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 347.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fulbert, L.

E. Molva, Ph. Thony, L. Fulbert, J. Marty, M. Rabarat, and B. Ferrand, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 347.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knüttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, and M. Yadlowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lacot, E.

E. Lacot and F. Stoeckel, “Detecteur optique actif,” patent97/12391 (September30, 1997).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marty, J.

E. Molva, Ph. Thony, L. Fulbert, J. Marty, M. Rabarat, and B. Ferrand, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 347.

Molva, E.

E. Molva, Ph. Thony, L. Fulbert, J. Marty, M. Rabarat, and B. Ferrand, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 347.

Otsuka, K.

K. Otsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1546 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabarat, M.

E. Molva, Ph. Thony, L. Fulbert, J. Marty, M. Rabarat, and B. Ferrand, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 347.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, and M. Yadlowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shuman, J. S.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoeckel, F.

E. Lacot and F. Stoeckel, “Detecteur optique actif,” patent97/12391 (September30, 1997).

Thony, Ph.

E. Molva, Ph. Thony, L. Fulbert, J. Marty, M. Rabarat, and B. Ferrand, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 347.

Wang, J.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, and M. Yadlowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, and M. Yadlowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 226 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Otsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1546 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus (1)

G. J. Dixon, Laser Focus 34(8), 137 (1998)B. Curless and M. Levoy, in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’96 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1996), pp. 303–312.

Phys. Today (1)

A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1994).

Science (1)

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

E. Lacot and F. Stoeckel, “Detecteur optique actif,” patent97/12391 (September30, 1997).

E. Molva, Ph. Thony, L. Fulbert, J. Marty, M. Rabarat, and B. Ferrand, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 347.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the LOFT technique: BS, beam splitter; RF, radio-frequency; L1–L3, lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplitude of the LOFT signal from a mirror immersed in a turbid liquid.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional LOFT image of a French 5 centime piece immersed in 1  cm of milk. The round-trip path length in the medium is 12 photon mean free paths. The pixel dimensions are 120   μ m × 120   μ m .

Equations (5)

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d N d t = γ N 0 - N - BN E 2 + F N t , d E t d t = i ω C - ω + 1 2 BN - γ C E t + F E t + γ C E inj t ,
E inj t = K exp i Ω t E t - τ exp i Φ t - τ × exp - i ω + Ω τ .
d N d t = γ N 0 - N - BN E t 2 + F N t , d E t d t = 1 2 BN - γ C E t + K γ C E t - τ × cos Ω t - Φ t + Φ t - τ - ω - Ω τ + F E t , d Φ d t = ω C - ω + K γ C E t - τ E t × sin Ω t - Φ t + Φ t - τ - ω + Ω τ + F Φ t .
d d t Δ n = - γ Δ n - B E S 2 Δ n - 2 BN S E S Δ e , d d t Δ e = 1 2 BE S Δ n + K γ C E S cos Ω t - ω + Ω τ , d d t Δ Φ = K γ C sin Ω t - ω + Ω τ ,
Δ I Ω I S = 2   Δ e Ω E S = 2 K γ C η 2 γ 2 + Ω 2 1 / 2 η 2 γ 2 Ω 2 + ω R 2 - Ω 2 2 1 / 2 ,

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