Abstract

By measuring the photosensitivity of Ge-doped silica fibers over the 3.4–5.4-eV spectral range and from T=95 K to T=375 K, we demonstrate that different physical mechanisms take place depending on whether H2 is present. Without H2 the principal photosensitivity pathway involves excitation of a germanium oxygen-deficient center to its triplet state. In H2-loaded fibers the UV light excites the regular Ge—O bond, which then reacts with H2 to produce Si—OH or Ge—OH and a GeE center.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
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P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
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P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Trukhin and P. Kulis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 188, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

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P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149, 77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamahe, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1960

G. Stephenson and K. H. Jack, Trans. Br. Ceram. Soc. 59, 397 (1960).

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins and R. P. Espindola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Awazu, K.

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamahe, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J.-F.

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

Campbell, R. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cordier, P.

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dalle, C.

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Depecker, C.

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, D. S. Starodubov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. A. Frolov, and O. I. Medvedkov, Opt. Lett. 22, 221 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, in 22nd European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (ECOC `96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), p. 65.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, and T. Erdogan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper CPD24.

Espindola, R. P.

R. M. Atkins and R. P. Espindola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 98.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, and T. Erdogan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper CPD24.

Friebele, E. J.

Frolov, A. A.

Glenn, W. H.

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 98.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, and T. Erdogan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper CPD24.

Hibino, Y.

Hill, K. O.

Jack, K. H.

G. Stephenson and K. H. Jack, Trans. Br. Ceram. Soc. 59, 397 (1960).

Johnson, D. C.

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Kawazoe, H.

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamahe, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kulis, P.

A. N. Trukhin and P. Kulis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 188, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, in 22nd European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (ECOC `96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), p. 65.

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

Martin, J.

J. Martin and F. Ouelette, Electron. Lett. 30, 811 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, G. D.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Medvedkov, O. I.

E. M. Dianov, D. S. Starodubov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. A. Frolov, and O. I. Medvedkov, Opt. Lett. 22, 221 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, in 22nd European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (ECOC `96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), p. 65.

Meltz, G.

Mizrahi, V.

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

Niay, P.

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ouelette, F.

J. Martin and F. Ouelette, Electron. Lett. 30, 811 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Protopopov, V. N.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, in 22nd European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (ECOC `96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), p. 65.

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skorucak, A.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149, 77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, D. S. Starodubov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. A. Frolov, and O. I. Medvedkov, Opt. Lett. 22, 221 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, and T. Erdogan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper CPD24.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 98.

Stephenson, G.

G. Stephenson and K. H. Jack, Trans. Br. Ceram. Soc. 59, 397 (1960).

Trukhin, A. N.

A. N. Trukhin and P. Kulis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 188, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.-E.

Vasiliev, S. A.

E. M. Dianov, D. S. Starodubov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. A. Frolov, and O. I. Medvedkov, Opt. Lett. 22, 221 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, in 22nd European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (ECOC `96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), p. 65.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

Wyatt, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamahe, M.

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamahe, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins and R. P. Espindola, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Martin and F. Ouelette, Electron. Lett. 30, 811 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamahe, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2713 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

A. N. Trukhin and P. Kulis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 188, 125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149, 77 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Cordier, C. Dalle, C. Depecker, P. Bernage, M. Douay, P. Niay, J.-F. Bayon, and L. Dong, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 224, 277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Br. Ceram. Soc.

G. Stephenson and K. H. Jack, Trans. Br. Ceram. Soc. 59, 397 (1960).

Other

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, in 22nd European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (ECOC `96) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), p. 65.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, and T. Erdogan, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper CPD24.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 98.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photosensitivity of H2-free Ge-doped fiber (10%  mol.)  follows the excitation spectrum of the triplet state of germanium oxygen-deficient centers. The solid curve is a fit using the sum of two Gaussians.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photosensitivity of H2-loaded Ge fiber (10%  mol.)  increases exponentially with energy and temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation of induced OH absorption with induced index change in Ge fiber (10%  mol.)  caused by irradiation with 300-nm light.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

αexpAE+T/T1,
GeOSi+HHGeH+HOSi.
SiOGeOSi+HH=Ge:+2HOSi.
GeOSi+hνGe--OSi,
Ge--OSi+HHGe+HOSi+H.

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