Abstract

A Mueller-matrix imaging polarimeter was developed to measure spatially resolved polarization properties in the living human eye. The apparatus is a double-pass setup that incorporates two liquid-crystal variable retarders and a slow-scan CCD camera in the recording stage. Series of 16 images for the combinations of independent polarization states in the first and second passages were recorded for two experimental conditions: with the camera conjugated either with the retina or with the eye's pupil plane. Spatially resolved collections of Mueller matrices and the degree of polarization were calculated from those images for both retinal and pupil planes.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fisher, O. W. Burk, and J. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 26, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

G. J. van Blokland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 72 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Acta 33, 185 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. N. Charman, Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 34, 34 (1980).

1978 (1)

1969 (1)

R. Rohler, U. Miller, and M. Aberl, Vision Res. 9, 407 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol (London) 186, 9325 (1966).

Aberl, M.

R. Rohler, U. Miller, and M. Aberl, Vision Res. 9, 407 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Sec.??27.1.

Bernabeu, E.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Acta 33, 185 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bescós, J.

Bille, J.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fisher, O. W. Burk, and J. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J. F.

Burk, O. W.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fisher, O. W. Burk, and J. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 34, 34 (1980).

Chipman, R. A.

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, Opt. Eng. 34, 1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. McGuire and R. A. Chipman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1614 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Chipman, in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Sec.??22.1.

Dreher, A. W.

Fisher, J. P.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fisher, O. W. Burk, and J. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gil, J. J.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Acta 33, 185 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goelz, S.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fisher, O. W. Burk, and J. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Green, D. G.

Grimm, B.

Hauge, P. S.

Iglesias, I.

Liang, J.

López-Gil, N.

McGuire, J. P.

Miller, U.

R. Rohler, U. Miller, and M. Aberl, Vision Res. 9, 407 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Pelz, B.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fisher, O. W. Burk, and J. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, Opt. Eng. 34, 1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reiter, K.

Rohler, R.

R. Rohler, U. Miller, and M. Aberl, Vision Res. 9, 407 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Santamaría, J.

van Blokland, G. J.

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 26, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. J. van Blokland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 72 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 26, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol (London) 186, 9325 (1966).

Weinred, R. N.

Weschenmoser, C.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fisher, O. W. Burk, and J. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Physiol. Opt. (1)

W. N. Charman, Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 34, 34 (1980).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Physiol (London) (1)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol (London) 186, 9325 (1966).

Opt. Acta (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Acta 33, 185 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, Opt. Eng. 34, 1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fisher, O. W. Burk, and J. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

R. Rohler, U. Miller, and M. Aberl, Vision Res. 9, 407 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. J. van Blokland and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 26, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. A. Chipman, in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Sec.??22.1.

R. M. A. Azzam, in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Sec.??27.1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the imaging polarimeter: P, linear polarizer; NDF, neutral-density filter; O, point source; BS1, pellicle beam splitter to measure the reference intensity with the detector; M, microscope objective; RQWP1, RQWP2, removable quarter-wave plates; BS2, pellicle beam splitter; L1L4, achromatic lenses; AP1, AP2, apertures acting as the stop for the first and second passes, respectively; BD, light trapper; O, retinal image; O, D-P image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images corresponding to the elements of the D-P MM's in the eye. The elements in the top row are 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, and 1-4 from left to right. Each image subtends 29  min of arc of visual field. The gray level code is the following: white is 1, black is -1, and gray is zero.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images corresponding to the elements of the eye's pupil plane MM's in the eye. Each image corresponds to 7.7  mm in the pupil plane. The gray level code is the same as for Fig.  2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Degree of polarization in the D-P image (obtained with a 2-mm pupil diameter). The image subtends 29  min of arc of visual field. The gray code ranges from white (0.9) to black (0.1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Degree of polarization in the eye's pupil plane. The image subtends 7.7  mm over the pupil. The gray code ranges from white (0.9) to black (0.1).

Equations (3)

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SPSAn=M¯PSAnMTMMRSPSGm,
Imn=MPSAMSOUT,
M=MT-1MSOUTMPSG-1MR-1,

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