Abstract

A theoretical investigation of a novel type of optical fiber is presented. The operation of the fiber relies entirely on wave guidance through the photonic bandgap effect and not on total internal reflection, thereby distinguishing that fiber from all other known fibers, including recently studied photonic crystal fibers. The novel fiber has a central low-index core region and a cladding consisting of a silica background material with air holes situated within a honeycomb lattice structure. We show the existence of photonic bandgaps for the silica–air cladding structure and demonstrate how light can be guided at the central low-index core region for a well-defined frequency that falls inside the photonic bandgap region of the cladding structure.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 283 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals:?Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. W. Ziolkowski, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. ITuA2.
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. Sandro, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 748 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and K. Dridi, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Madrid, September 20–24, 1998.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. P. R. Villeneuve and M. Piche, Phys. Rev. B 46, 4969 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Bjarklev, Optical Fiber Amplifiers:?Design and System Application (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993).

1998 (3)

A. Barra, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. Sandro, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. F. Krauss and R. M. DelaRue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

P. R. Villeneuve and M. Piche, Phys. Rev. B 46, 4969 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkin, D. M.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barkou, S. E.

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and K. Dridi, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Madrid, September 20–24, 1998.

Barra, A.

A. Barra, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. Sandro, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, Optical Fiber Amplifiers:?Design and System Application (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993).

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and K. Dridi, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Madrid, September 20–24, 1998.

Broeng, J.

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and K. Dridi, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Madrid, September 20–24, 1998.

Cassagne, D.

A. Barra, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DelaRue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss and R. M. DelaRue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dridi, K.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and K. Dridi, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Madrid, September 20–24, 1998.

Fan, S.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals:?Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1995).

Jouanin, C.

A. Barra, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss and R. M. DelaRue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurland, I.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals:?Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1995).

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piche, M.

P. R. Villeneuve and M. Piche, Phys. Rev. B 46, 4969 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sandro, J. P.

Shepherd, T. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. J. Russell, P.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. Sandro, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Villeneuve and M. Piche, Phys. Rev. B 46, 4969 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals:?Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1995).

Yablonovitch, E.

Ziolkowski, R. W.

R. W. Ziolkowski, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. ITuA2.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Barra, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. F. Krauss and R. M. DelaRue, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 176 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 156, 240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. R. Villeneuve and M. Piche, Phys. Rev. B 46, 4969 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. W. Ziolkowski, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. ITuA2.

J. D. Joannopoulos, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals:?Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1995).

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and K. Dridi, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Madrid, September 20–24, 1998.

A. Bjarklev, Optical Fiber Amplifiers:?Design and System Application (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of a novel PCF. The circular holes represent air. The cladding consists of a honeycomb-based silica–air photonic crystal. The central air hole creates a defect site in the photonic crystal at which light can be trapped by the photonic bandgap effect.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Core modes of a honeycomb PCF. The radiation line illustrates the effective refractive index of the cladding. Constant-frequency (dotted) curves are also shown, with their respective values given at the bottom of the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field distribution of a mode positioned in the first PBG of the cladding. The real space hole structure about the fiber core is indicated by dotted circles. Strong confinement to the low-index core region is observed (dark regions represent high intensity).

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