Abstract

We have developed an optical method for real-time monitoring of cellular motion in a natural environment with nanometer resolution. From the motion driven by small optical forces, we measured dynamic viscoelastic responses of living cells in the linear reversible region. Cytoplasmic gel-to-sol transition that was due to the disruption of the actin-filament framework was detected, and a linear release of Ca2+ from intracellular storage that was related to submicrometer cell deformation was observed. The method was shown to be a powerful tool for studying the natural response of cells to mechanical perturbation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed. (Garland, New York, 1989), Chap.??11.
  2. T. Yamazaki, I. Komuro, and Y. Yazaki, J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 27, 133 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, Opt. Commun. 135, 233 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. See, for example, T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).
  5. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap.??15.
  6. S. W. Tanenbaum, ed., Cytochalasins, Biochemical and Cell Biological Aspects (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978).
  7. J. A. Cooper, J. Cell Biol. 105, 1473 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. P. Stossel, Science 260, 1086 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 7914 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. S. Zaner and P. A. Valberg, J. Cell Biol. 109, 2233 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Evans, Methods Enzymol. 173, 3 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. O. Petersen, W. B. McConnaughey, and E. L. Elson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5327 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Bearden, M. P. O'Neill, L. C. Osborne, and T. L. Wong, Opt. Lett. 18, 238 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and N. P. Rea, Opt. Commun. 109, 167 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Weeds, Nature (London) 296, 811 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, Opt. Commun. 135, 233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Yamazaki, I. Komuro, and Y. Yazaki, J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 27, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and N. P. Rea, Opt. Commun. 109, 167 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1989 (3)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 7914 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Zaner and P. A. Valberg, J. Cell Biol. 109, 2233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Evans, Methods Enzymol. 173, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. A. Cooper, J. Cell Biol. 105, 1473 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

A. Weeds, Nature (London) 296, 811 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. O. Petersen, W. B. McConnaughey, and E. L. Elson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alberts, B.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed. (Garland, New York, 1989), Chap.??11.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 7914 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bearden, A.

Bray, D.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed. (Garland, New York, 1989), Chap.??11.

Cooper, J. A.

J. A. Cooper, J. Cell Biol. 105, 1473 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 7914 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Elson, E. L.

N. O. Petersen, W. B. McConnaughey, and E. L. Elson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Evans, E.

E. Evans, Methods Enzymol. 173, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap.??15.

Juskaitis, R.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and N. P. Rea, Opt. Commun. 109, 167 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Komuro, I.

T. Yamazaki, I. Komuro, and Y. Yazaki, J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 27, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-H.

C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, Opt. Commun. 135, 233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed. (Garland, New York, 1989), Chap.??11.

McConnaughey, W. B.

N. O. Petersen, W. B. McConnaughey, and E. L. Elson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O'Neill, M. P.

Osborne, L. C.

Petersen, N. O.

N. O. Petersen, W. B. McConnaughey, and E. L. Elson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap.??15.

Raff, M.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed. (Garland, New York, 1989), Chap.??11.

Rea, N. P.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and N. P. Rea, Opt. Commun. 109, 167 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, K.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed. (Garland, New York, 1989), Chap.??11.

Stossel, T. P.

T. P. Stossel, Science 260, 1086 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap.??15.

Valberg, P. A.

K. S. Zaner and P. A. Valberg, J. Cell Biol. 109, 2233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap.??15.

Wang, J.

C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, Opt. Commun. 135, 233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. D.

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed. (Garland, New York, 1989), Chap.??11.

Weeds, A.

A. Weeds, Nature (London) 296, 811 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and N. P. Rea, Opt. Commun. 109, 167 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wong, T. L.

Yamazaki, T.

T. Yamazaki, I. Komuro, and Y. Yazaki, J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 27, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazaki, Y.

T. Yamazaki, I. Komuro, and Y. Yazaki, J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 27, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaner, K. S.

K. S. Zaner and P. A. Valberg, J. Cell Biol. 109, 2233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol. (2)

J. A. Cooper, J. Cell Biol. 105, 1473 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Zaner and P. A. Valberg, J. Cell Biol. 109, 2233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. (1)

T. Yamazaki, I. Komuro, and Y. Yazaki, J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 27, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Enzymol. (1)

E. Evans, Methods Enzymol. 173, 3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

A. Weeds, Nature (London) 296, 811 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, and N. P. Rea, Opt. Commun. 109, 167 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, Opt. Commun. 135, 233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

N. O. Petersen, W. B. McConnaughey, and E. L. Elson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 7914 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. P. Stossel, Science 260, 1086 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed. (Garland, New York, 1989), Chap.??11.

See, for example, T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap.??15.

S. W. Tanenbaum, ed., Cytochalasins, Biochemical and Cell Biological Aspects (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Viscoelastic susceptibility curves. Solid curve and filled circles, normal fibroblast. Dashed curve and filled squares, the same cell treated with cytochalasin D. Inset: membrane displacement (solid curve) induced by a square-wave optical force (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ca2+ response to deformation. Filled circles, normal fibroblast; open circles, the same cell treated with cytochalasin D.

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