Abstract

We report an efficient, high-power, cw, 629-nm laser source based on a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) frequency converter. This device integrates two separate frequency-conversion steps in a single crystal, taking advantage of the ability to fabricate PPLN with nearly arbitrary grating periods and phase-matching temperatures. This device uses a single PPLN crystal that has two grating regions in series. The first region quasi-phase matches a standard optical parametric oscillator process (1064 nm1540 nm+3450 nm), and the second region quasi-phase matches a sum-frequency process whereby the pump and the signal light make red light (1064 nm+1540 nm629 nm). Using a four-mirror ring cavity, we were able to convert 21% of the 1064-nm pump to 629-nm output, yielding 2.5 W of red output with 11.8 W of input.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 21, 713 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 21, 1336 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Chen, D. Hinkley, J. Pyo, J. Swenson, and R. Fields, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 241.
  4. K. Schneider, P. Kramper, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett. 22, 1293 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ferriario, N. Rucker, S. W. Ryter, D. R. Doiron, and C. J. Gomer, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 404 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. E. Glenn, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 38.
  8. R. G. Batchko, D. Weise, T. Plettner, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThG2.
  9. T. G. Giallorenzi and M. H. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 302 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Bey and C. L. Tang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 361 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. T. Moore and K. Koch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 961 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Campillo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 914 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. C. Cheung, K. Koch, and G. T. Moore, Opt. Lett. 19, 1967 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, Ferroelectrics 3, 107 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Schneider, P. Kramper, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett. 22, 1293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

G. T. Moore and K. Koch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 961 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Ferriario, N. Rucker, S. W. Ryter, D. R. Doiron, and C. J. Gomer, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972 (4)

T. G. Giallorenzi and M. H. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 302 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Bey and C. L. Tang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 361 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Campillo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 914 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, Ferroelectrics 3, 107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, J. I.

Amodei, J. J.

D. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, Ferroelectrics 3, 107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Batchko, R. G.

R. G. Batchko, D. Weise, T. Plettner, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThG2.

Bey, P.

P. Bey and C. L. Tang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 361 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Byer, R. L.

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 21, 1336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 21, 713 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Batchko, D. Weise, T. Plettner, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThG2.

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 914 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, D. Hinkley, J. Pyo, J. Swenson, and R. Fields, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 241.

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, E. C.

Doiron, D. R.

A. Ferriario, N. Rucker, S. W. Ryter, D. R. Doiron, and C. J. Gomer, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Drobshoff, A.

Fejer, M. M.

R. G. Batchko, D. Weise, T. Plettner, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThG2.

Ferriario, A.

A. Ferriario, N. Rucker, S. W. Ryter, D. R. Doiron, and C. J. Gomer, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R.

D. Chen, D. Hinkley, J. Pyo, J. Swenson, and R. Fields, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 241.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

T. G. Giallorenzi and M. H. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 302 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. E.

W. E. Glenn, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 38.

Gomer, C. J.

A. Ferriario, N. Rucker, S. W. Ryter, D. R. Doiron, and C. J. Gomer, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, D.

D. Chen, D. Hinkley, J. Pyo, J. Swenson, and R. Fields, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 241.

Koch, K.

E. C. Cheung, K. Koch, and G. T. Moore, Opt. Lett. 19, 1967 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Moore and K. Koch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 961 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kramper, P.

Miller, G. D.

R. G. Batchko, D. Weise, T. Plettner, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThG2.

Mlynek, J.

Moore, G. T.

E. C. Cheung, K. Koch, and G. T. Moore, Opt. Lett. 19, 1967 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Moore and K. Koch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 961 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

Plettner, T.

R. G. Batchko, D. Weise, T. Plettner, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThG2.

Pyo, J.

D. Chen, D. Hinkley, J. Pyo, J. Swenson, and R. Fields, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 241.

Reilly, M. H.

T. G. Giallorenzi and M. H. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 302 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rucker, N.

A. Ferriario, N. Rucker, S. W. Ryter, D. R. Doiron, and C. J. Gomer, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ryter, S. W.

A. Ferriario, N. Rucker, S. W. Ryter, D. R. Doiron, and C. J. Gomer, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Schneider, K.

Staebler, D.

D. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, Ferroelectrics 3, 107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, J.

D. Chen, D. Hinkley, J. Pyo, J. Swenson, and R. Fields, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 241.

Tang, C. L.

P. Bey and C. L. Tang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 361 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Weise, D.

R. G. Batchko, D. Weise, T. Plettner, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThG2.

Ferroelectrics (1)

D. Staebler and J. J. Amodei, Ferroelectrics 3, 107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Giallorenzi and M. H. Reilly, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 302 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Bey and C. L. Tang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 361 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Moore and K. Koch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 961 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Campillo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 914 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

A. Ferriario, N. Rucker, S. W. Ryter, D. R. Doiron, and C. J. Gomer, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

D. Chen, D. Hinkley, J. Pyo, J. Swenson, and R. Fields, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 241.

W. E. Glenn, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, C. R. Pollock and W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol.??10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 38.

R. G. Batchko, D. Weise, T. Plettner, G. D. Miller, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThG2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental configuration. A cw Nd:YAG laser is used to pump the OPO frequency converter. The converter contains a dual-grating PPLN crystal (Λ1=29.2 µm for phase matching 1064 nm1540 nm+3450 nm; Λ2=11.0 µm for phase matching 1064 nm+1540 nm629 nm). A four-mirror ring cavity resonates the 1540-nm light. A dielectric coating filter is used to separate the various output wavelengths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Red power and output wavelength for the SFG–OPO device. The two gratings operate optimally at 195°C, with a relatively broad temperature span of 10°C. Broader tuning is available if the grating periods are varied.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Red output power versus pump power for a crystal operating at 195°C. 2.5 W of output is achieved with 11.8 W of pump, which corresponds to 21% efficiency. The deviation from a straight line is due to thermal lensing in the PPLN crystal, which varies the signal-beam waist size and location as the pump power is varied.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitude noise measured over 50 s. The dominant cause of noise is OPO axial mode hops, which can be seen at 8 and 18 s. Better crystal temperature control and improved vibration isolation should reduce the amount of noise.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

During extended operation the red power would suddenly drop after 10–50 h of operation. We isolated the cause to be a local change in the crystal index of refraction. If left running, the device heals after 3–5 h. This cycle continues indefinitely. Learning how to eliminate this effect will require further study.

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