Abstract

An organically modified silane zirconate-based solgel material is used for the fabrication of binary-phase zone-plate arrays. The synthesized hybrid solgel material has a negative tone under UV exposure and can be patterned by a UV-lithography process. The transmittance of the material is nearly 100%, and the refractive index is 1.52. Two different diffractive lens arrays with focal lengths of 5 and 42 cm have been fabricated. The average roughness of the zone surface is less than 20 nm. The diffraction efficiencies of the lens arrays are measured as a function of modulation depth and exposure dose. A diffraction efficiency of 30% is achieved.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

1997

M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, and J. Meissner, Proc. SPIE 1992, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Schmidt, H. Krug, R. Kasemann, and F. Tiefensee, Proc. SPIE 1590, 36 (1991).
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1967

Alain, V.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
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M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 31, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baraldi, L.

L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, and J. Meissner, Proc. SPIE 1992, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bett, T. H.

Blanchard-Desce, M.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
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Boilot, J.-P.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chaput, F.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chisham, J.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 31, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coudray, P.

P. Coudray, Y. Moreau, P. Etienne, and J. Porque, in Sol-Gel and Polymer Photonic Devices, M. P. Andrews and S. Iraji Narafi, eds., Vol. 68 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society for Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 286–303.

Danson, C. N.

Darracq, B.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dashner, W.

Du, X. M.

M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Etienne, P.

P. Coudray, Y. Moreau, P. Etienne, and J. Porque, in Sol-Gel and Polymer Photonic Devices, M. P. Andrews and S. Iraji Narafi, eds., Vol. 68 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society for Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 286–303.

Fardad, M. A.

M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Hench, L. L.

L. L. Hench and J. L. Noguès, in Sol-gel Optics: Processing and Applications, L. C. Klein, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994), p. 59.
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horman, M. H.

Jinks, P.

Kasemann, R.

H. Schmidt, H. Krug, R. Kasemann, and F. Tiefensee, Proc. SPIE 1590, 36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Krug, H.

H. Schmidt, H. Krug, R. Kasemann, and F. Tiefensee, Proc. SPIE 1590, 36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, and J. Meissner, Proc. SPIE 1992, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lahlil, K.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Levy, Y.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 31, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Long, P.

Mackenzie, J. D.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 31, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, J.

L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, and J. Meissner, Proc. SPIE 1992, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meshkinfam, P.

M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, Y.

P. Coudray, Y. Moreau, P. Etienne, and J. Porque, in Sol-Gel and Polymer Photonic Devices, M. P. Andrews and S. Iraji Narafi, eds., Vol. 68 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society for Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 286–303.

Najafi, S. I.

M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 31, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Noguès, J. L.

L. L. Hench and J. L. Noguès, in Sol-gel Optics: Processing and Applications, L. C. Klein, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994), p. 59.
[CrossRef]

Nordman, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, O.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D. C.

Pepler, D. A.

Peyghambarian, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 31, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Porque, J.

P. Coudray, Y. Moreau, P. Etienne, and J. Porque, in Sol-Gel and Polymer Photonic Devices, M. P. Andrews and S. Iraji Narafi, eds., Vol. 68 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society for Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 286–303.

Rantala, J. T.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rockward, W. S.

Ross, I. N.

Sara, R.

M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, H. Krug, R. Kasemann, and F. Tiefensee, Proc. SPIE 1590, 36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stein, R.

Stevenson, R. M.

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Suleski, T. J.

Tiefensee, F.

H. Schmidt, H. Krug, R. Kasemann, and F. Tiefensee, Proc. SPIE 1590, 36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Touam, T.

M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vähäkangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ventelon, L.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

C.-Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, J. D. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 31, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Fardad, T. Touam, P. Meshkinfam, R. Sara, X. M. Du, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, Electron. Lett. 33, 1069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J.-P. Boilot, Y. Levy, V. Alain, L. Ventelon, and M. Blanchard-Desce, Opt. Mater. 9, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. Schmidt, H. Krug, R. Kasemann, and F. Tiefensee, Proc. SPIE 1590, 36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, and J. Meissner, Proc. SPIE 1992, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. L. Hench and J. L. Noguès, in Sol-gel Optics: Processing and Applications, L. C. Klein, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994), p. 59.
[CrossRef]

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

P. Coudray, Y. Moreau, P. Etienne, and J. Porque, in Sol-Gel and Polymer Photonic Devices, M. P. Andrews and S. Iraji Narafi, eds., Vol. 68 of SPIE Critical Review Series (Society for Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 286–303.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance of the hybrid solgel thin film on top of a fused-silica substrate compared with transmittance of a bare fused-silica substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope photographs of lenses in lens arrays A (top) and B (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency as a function of exposure dose for initial film thicknesses of 650 and 850 nm for lens arrays A (, 650 nm, , 850 nm) and B (, 650 nm; and , 850 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency as a function of the modulation depth for lens arrays A and B . The solid curve without the shapes represents the theoretical prediction.

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