Abstract

Photorefractive damage, optical absorption, photoconductivities, and photogalvanic currents of stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals with different Mg doping levels have been investigated. Nominally pure stoichiometric LiNbO3 shows lower photorefractive damage resistance than congruent crystal; however, stoichiometric crystals doped with MgO of more than 1.8 mol. % exhibit no measurable photorefractive damage at 532 nm to intensities of as much as 8 MW/cm2. This remarkable damage resistance can be attributed not only to increased photoconductivity but also to decreased photogalvanic current. Stoichiometric Mg:LiNbO3 also demonstrates the shortest absorption edge, 302 nm, and a single-domain nature with low scattering losses.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, Electron. Lett. 25, 731 (1997).
  2. L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 52 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, F. Nitanda, and K. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 832 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, Electron. Lett. 25, 731 (1997).

1995 (3)

L. E. Myers, G. D. Miller, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 52 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, F. Nitanda, and K. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. M. Glass, J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Betzler, K.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Bryan, D. A.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Eckardt, R. C.

Fejer, M. M.

Furukawa, Y.

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, F. Nitanda, and K. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gather, B.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gerson, R.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grachev, V. G.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, F. Nitanda, and K. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iyi, N.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, Electron. Lett. 25, 731 (1997).

Kimura, S.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klauer, S.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malovichko, G. I.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Medrano, C.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, G. D.

Mitchell, T. E.

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mizuuchi, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, Electron. Lett. 25, 731 (1997).

Montemezzani, G.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

Nitanda, F.

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, F. Nitanda, and K. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, F. Nitanda, and K. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, U.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tomaschke, H. E.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wöhlecke, M.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yajima, Y.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, Electron. Lett. 25, 731 (1997).

Zgonik, M.

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, Electron. Lett. 25, 731 (1997).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, Y. Ji, M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1006 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, F. Nitanda, and K. Ito, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

A. M. Glass, J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

Y. Watanabe, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, and S. Kimura, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, 3627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, S. Kimura, Y. Furukawa, and M. Sato, J. Solid State Chem. 118, 148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photorefractive damage threshold for CLN (congruent LiNbO3), SLN (stoichiometric LiNbO3), MG06 (MgO 0.6-mol. % doped SLN), MG18 (MgO 1.8-mol. % doped SLN), MG36 (MgO) 3.6-mol. % doped SLN).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoconductivity versus MgO concentration in the stoichiometric crystal (SLN). Data for congruent LiNbO3 (CLN) are also plotted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photogalvanic current density versus MgO concentration in SLN and CLN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IR transmission spectra of LiNbO3 crystals with various compositions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the absorption edge (filled circles) and the Curie temperature (open circles) on the MgO concentration in the crystal. Data for CLN are also plotted.

Equations (1)

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δΔn=ne3/2Rj/σd+σp=ne3/2RkαI/σd+σp,

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