Abstract

We report on enhancement of the range, reliability, and accuracy of optical-time-domain-reflection- (OTDR-) like measurement of an optical fiber’s dispersion map, Dz, through the combined use of Raman gain, an appropriate seed at the four-wave mixing frequency, and a greatly improved algorithm for reduction of the data. In particular, in measurements made from only one end of the fiber, we have demonstrated a range of 75  km in dispersion-shifted fiber and of 22.5  km in high-loss dispersion-compensating fiber.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Nishi and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 579 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Brener, P. P. Mitra, and D. J. Thompson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 344–345.
  3. J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.
  4. L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, and M. J. Neubelt, Opt. Lett. 21, 1724 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and L. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1511 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.
  7. C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, and J. C. Centanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1430 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997

N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and L. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, and J. C. Centanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Arradi, R.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Artiglia, M.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

Brener, I.

I. Brener, P. P. Mitra, and D. J. Thompson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 344–345.

Broderick, N. G. R.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and L. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caponi, R.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

Centanni, J. C.

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, and J. C. Centanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Barros, M. R. X.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, and J. C. Centanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and L. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Estevaõ, P.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Grazioli, E.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

Joyner, C. H.

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, and J. C. Centanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juriollo, A. A.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Mamyshev, P. V.

Mitra, P. P.

I. Brener, P. P. Mitra, and D. J. Thompson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 344–345.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Neubelt, M. J.

Nishi, S.

S. Nishi and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 579 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pagano, A.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

Panella, A.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

Paradisi, A.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Pereira, F. A. S.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Potenza, M.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

Riccardi, E.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

Richardson, D. J.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and L. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosolem, J. B.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Sachs, A. C.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Said, J. C.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Salomão Pereira, J.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Sarno Filho, E. P.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Saruwatari, M.

S. Nishi and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 579 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sordo, B.

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, and J. C. Centanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. J.

I. Brener, P. P. Mitra, and D. J. Thompson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 344–345.

Electron. Lett.

S. Nishi and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 579 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and L. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, and J. C. Centanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, E. Grazioli, A. Pagano, A. Panella, M. Potenza, E. Riccardi, and B. Sordo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 179–180.

I. Brener, P. P. Mitra, and D. J. Thompson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 344–345.

J. Salomão Pereira, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, M. R. X. de Barros, A. A. Juriollo, J. C. Said, A. Paradisi, A. C. Sachs, E. P. Sarno Filho, F. A. S. Pereira, and P. Estevaõ, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 345–346.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the apparatus. A multifrequency laser (MFL) with an extracavity semiconductor optical amplifier–switch generates two frequencies and creates 0.9µs pulses. The erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) amplifies the pulses to as much as 1  W before they travel through the circulator and a wavelength-division multiplexer (WDM) into the fiber under test. Two cascaded Raman lasers (CRL’s) provide Raman gain from both ends of the fiber. Rayleigh-backscattered light emerges from the third port of the circulator. A narrow tunable etalon selects the signal either at λS or at λA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Possible evolution of the Stokes vector (a) without a coherent field, (b) with a coherent field (dashed arrow). Case (a) leads to no measurable power change on the last turn; in case (b) the oscillations can be detected all the way through.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Signal of a 75-km span of low dispersion slope DSF. b, Solid thick curve, dispersion at λ=1552 nm obtained from one measurement of the entire span; dashed thick curve, dispersion obtained from three separate measurements of 25  km each. We shifted the dashed curve up by 10 ps/nm for better visibility of the two virtually identical curves. Solid thin curve, D from the measurement of the entire span. Dashed thin curve, D from the three separate measurements. The two vertical dotted lines indicate the points at which the fiber was cut.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a, Signal of a 22.5-km span of dispersion-compensating fiber, measured with counterpropagating pump light. δλ=0.6 nm. b, Thick curve, dispersion at λ=1554 nm; thin curve, dispersion parameter D.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dPmdz=-αsPm+R/2AeffPco+PctPm,
dPcodz=-αpPco-λsλpR/2AeffP1+P2Pco.

Metrics