Abstract

We demonstrate a short-cavity erbium–ytterbium fiber laser that is passively mode locked by a saturable Bragg reflector with a fundamental repetition rate of 235 MHz. The laser operates in the soliton regime and under passive harmonic mode locking with 11 pulses in the cavity and produces output pulse trains at 2.6 GHz with transform-limited 270-fs pulses and 1.6  mW of average power. Within the cavity the multiple pulses form a stable pattern with fixed, nearly equal pulse-to-pulse temporal spacings, causing the output pulse train to have timing offsets of less than 15  ps. A slow gain-recovery model is proposed to explain the pulse-train self-organization.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997); T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Katamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol.??2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD21.
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling, Opt. Lett. 21, 1927 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. N. Duling and M. L. Dennis, Compact Sources Of Ultrafast Pulses (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200 (1994); M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrjco, Y. Silberberg, and M. L. Stock, Opt. Lett. 18, 894 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. B. Grundinn and S. Gray, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 144 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. L. Zyskind, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and R. Pathak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFD2; B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers modelocked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  9. B. C. Collings, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThH2.
  10. B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1171 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. Weinstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, Opt. Express 1, 12 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. von de Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Namiki, C. X. Yu, and H. A. Haus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2817 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (4)

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997); T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Katamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol.??2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD21.
[CrossRef]

A. B. Grundinn and S. Gray, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. Weinstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, Opt. Express 1, 12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

1994 (1)

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200 (1994); M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrjco, Y. Silberberg, and M. L. Stock, Opt. Lett. 18, 894 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. von de Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. Weinstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1171 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Collings, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThH2.

Boivin, L.

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997); T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Katamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol.??2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD21.
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, T. F.

Collings, B. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

Cunningham, J. E.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1171 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. L. Zyskind, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and R. Pathak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFD2; B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers modelocked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

De Souza, E. A.

E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. L.

I. N. Duling and M. L. Dennis, Compact Sources Of Ultrafast Pulses (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling, Opt. Lett. 21, 1927 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Duling and M. L. Dennis, Compact Sources Of Ultrafast Pulses (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.

Grundinn, A. B.

Haus, H. A.

S. Namiki, C. X. Yu, and H. A. Haus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2817 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200 (1994); M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrjco, Y. Silberberg, and M. L. Stock, Opt. Lett. 18, 894 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, P.

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200 (1994); M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrjco, Y. Silberberg, and M. L. Stock, Opt. Lett. 18, 894 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1171 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. L. Zyskind, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and R. Pathak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFD2; B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers modelocked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Knox, W. H.

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997); T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Katamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol.??2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD21.
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. Weinstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, Opt. Express 1, 12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1171 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThH2.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. L. Zyskind, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and R. Pathak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFD2; B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers modelocked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Kutz, J. N.

Namiki, S.

Nuss, M. C.

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997); T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Katamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol.??2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD21.
[CrossRef]

Pathak, R.

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1171 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. L. Zyskind, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and R. Pathak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFD2; B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers modelocked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Pleibel, W.

E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soccolich, C. E.

E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stark, J. B.

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997); T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Katamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol.??2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD21.
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1171 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R. H.

E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200 (1994); M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrjco, Y. Silberberg, and M. L. Stock, Opt. Lett. 18, 894 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, S.

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. Weinstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, J. B. Stark, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, R. Pathak, and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1171 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Collings, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThH2.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. L. Zyskind, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and R. Pathak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFD2; B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers modelocked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

von de Linde, D.

D. von de Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, M.

Yu, C. X.

Zyskind, J. L.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. L. Zyskind, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and R. Pathak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFD2; B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers modelocked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. von de Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

E. A. De Souza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, J. R. Simpson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, Electron. Lett. 29, 447 (1993); M. Zirngibil, L. W. Stulz, J. Stone, J. Hugi, D. DiGiovanni, and P. B. Hensen, Electron Lett. 27, 1734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997); T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, O. Katamatani, K. Takiguchi, K. Uchiyama, M. Saruwatari, H. Takahashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, and H. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol.??2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD21.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200 (1994); M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrjco, Y. Silberberg, and M. L. Stock, Opt. Lett. 18, 894 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. L. Zyskind, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and R. Pathak, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CFD2; B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers modelocked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

B. C. Collings, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol.??11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper CThH2.

I. N. Duling and M. L. Dennis, Compact Sources Of Ultrafast Pulses (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber laser cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical background-free autocorrelation trace and optical spectrum of the laser output. A sech2 curve (dashed) is superimposed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Example of a pulse train containing temporal offsets between the pulses and their respective locations for an ideally periodic train. (b) rf spectrum of the output with 11 pulses in the cavity. An example of the dependence of the number of circulating pulses on pump power is shown in the inset. (c) Typical cross-correlation trace of adjacent pulses, used to measure directly the periods between adjacent pulses.

Equations (1)

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Δτcc2=Δτj2+Δτac2.

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