Abstract

The influence of drawing tension on the formation of Bragg gratings in B–Ge- and Sn–Ge-codoped core fibers is investigated by transmission and stress measurements. With increasing drawing tension, the axial stress is reduced in the B–Ge-codoped core but increased in the Sn–Ge-codoped core. A higher drawing tension leads to a photosensitivity enhancement and an increase of the core stress during the grating formation in B–Ge-codoped fibers. For Sn–Ge-codoped fibers, increased drawing tension results in an UV-induced stress decrease accompanied by a reduction of the photosensitivity. The results are discussed on the basis of an UV-induced compaction of the core network.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, Y. N. Pyrkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 22, 1754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, Opt. Lett. 20, 1346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. E. Tsai, C. G. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1982 (1)

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

T. E. Tsai, C. G. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, G. R.

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Cochet, F.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, Opt. Lett. 20, 1346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordier, P.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Dong, L.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, S.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, Opt. Lett. 20, 1346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

T. E. Tsai, C. G. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Georges, T.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gilgen, H. H.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koltashev, V. V.

Ky, N. H.

Lambelet, P.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, B.

Limberger, H. G.

E. M. Dianov, Y. N. Pyrkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 22, 1754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, Opt. Lett. 20, 1346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, G.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, D. R.

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Poole, S. B.

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pyrkov, Y. N.

Reekie, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Riant, I.

B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Salathé, R. P.

E. M. Dianov, Y. N. Pyrkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 22, 1754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, Opt. Lett. 20, 1346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. G.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, H. W.

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. E.

T. E. Tsai, C. G. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitbread, T.

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, Ch.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. E. Tsai, C. G. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, and L. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. R. Atkins, Z. H. Wang, D. R. McKenzie, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, and H. W. Simmons, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. X. Xie, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 104, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Index modulation amplitude Δn and (b) mean index change Δn as a function of total irradiation fluence for gratings written in B–Ge-codoped fibers 1 (solid curves and circles) and 2 (dashed curves and triangles).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Axial stress distribution (a) before and (b) after irradiation with an Ft value of 80 to 105 kJ/cm2 in B–Ge-codoped fibers 1 (solid curves) and 2 (dashed curves).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Index modulation amplitude Δn and (b) mean index change Δn as a function of total irradiation fluence for gratings written in Sn–Ge-codoped fibers 3 (full curves and circles) and 4 (dashed curves and triangles).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Axial stress distribution (a) before and (b) after irradiation with an Ft value of 75 to 85 kJ/cm2 in Sn–Ge-codoped fibers 3 (full curves) and 4 (dashed curves).

Equations (1)

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Δn=neffΔλBηλB,  Δn=λB arctanhRπηL,

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