Abstract

We etched thermally poled fused-silica coverslips in 49% HF for 30  s transverse to the poling direction to reveal structural details of the nonlinear region. A peaked ridge below the anode surface, corresponding to a slower etch rate than that of the bulk SiO2, was located 5 µm below the anode surface for a poling time of 30  s. The ridge moved deeper into the glass logarithmically with poling time. This trend is qualitatively consistent with a recent model for the formation of the space-charge region that includes injection of hydrogen ions at the anode surface.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 15, 1733 (1991).
  2. R. A. Myers, X. C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, Electron. Lett. 31, 1604 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 767 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and H. Takebe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1484 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 18, 1141 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, and G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Pureur, A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 302.
  8. W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Opt. Lett. 21, 1786 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, and G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. G. Alley, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 293.
  13. G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, and M. W. Ramsay, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 6 (1965).

1997 (4)

X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and H. Takebe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, and G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Opt. Lett. 21, 1786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. A. Myers, X. C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, Electron. Lett. 31, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 15, 1733 (1991).

1974 (1)

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, and G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, and M. W. Ramsay, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 6 (1965).

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alley, T. G.

T. G. Alley, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 293.

Brueck, S. R. J.

X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Myers, X. C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, Electron. Lett. 31, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 15, 1733 (1991).

T. G. Alley, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 293.

Carlson, D. E.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, and G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

D. Pureur, A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 302.

Garcia, F. C.

B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hang, K. W.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, and G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hering, E. N.

B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hetherington, G.

G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, and M. W. Ramsay, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 6 (1965).

Jack, K. H.

G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, and M. W. Ramsay, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 6 (1965).

Kamal, A.

Kazansky, P. G.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and H. Takebe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, and G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 18, 1141 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

D. Pureur, A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 302.

Laurell, F.

B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Opt. Lett. 21, 1786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesche, B.

B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. C.

D. Pureur, A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 302.

Long, X. C.

X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Myers, X. C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, Electron. Lett. 31, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Opt. Lett. 21, 1786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, N.

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 15, 1733 (1991).

Myers, R. A.

R. A. Myers, X. C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, Electron. Lett. 31, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 15, 1733 (1991).

T. G. Alley, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 293.

Pureur, D.

D. Pureur, A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 302.

Ramsay, M. W.

G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, and M. W. Ramsay, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 6 (1965).

Russell, P. St. J.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and H. Takebe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, and G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 18, 1141 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sessler, G. M.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, and G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. R.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, and G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stockdale, G. F.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, and G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Takebe, H.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and H. Takebe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tomozawa, M.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tumminelli, R. P.

R. A. Myers, X. C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, Electron. Lett. 31, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, and G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, and G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. A. Myers, X. C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. P. Tumminelli, Electron. Lett. 31, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, and G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and H. Takebe, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, and M. W. Ramsay, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 6 (1965).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Lesche, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, I. C. S. Carvalho, and F. Laurell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. G. Alley, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 293.

D. Pureur, A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides:?Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 302.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM image of a poled fused-silica coverslip T=275°C,V=4.3 kV,t30 s etched transversely to the poling direction. The anode was at the left edge. Two ridges (regions of slower etch rates) are evident, one within approximately 1 µm of the anode edge and a second, higher ridge 5 µm deep. The vertical scale is 400  nm/division.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Depth of the second ridge below the anode as a function of poling time. The three points in the inset correspond to a single sample with varying poling times on isolated electrodes. The main set of points corresponds to separate samples poled for varying times. The fit to a simple logarithmic time dependence is shown for both data sets, as is the result of a model that invokes motion of a fast ionic species Na+ at short times, which corresponds to the current variation shown in Fig.  3 and to charge exchange with a much less mobile ionic species (possibly H3O+) at longer times.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current versus time, showing depletion-region formation. The spikes result from surface arcing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM image of a poled fused-silica coverslip T=275°C,V=4.3 kV,t140 min. The second ridge has moved relatively uniformly to a depth of 14 µm. The depth of the first ridge is much less uniform, varying from 3 to 7 µm. A narrow, deep groove has formed between the two ridges. The cross section of the ridge is shown in the inset scanning electron microscope image.

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