Abstract

We report spectroscopic gas detection by the use of mid-infrared difference-frequency mixing of two diode lasers in a channel waveguide. The waveguide was fabricated by annealed proton exchange in periodically poled lithium niobate. We generated 3.433.73µm tunable radiation in a single waveguide at room temperature by mixing diode lasers near 780 and 1010 nm. High-resolution spectra of methane were obtained in 2 s with electronically controlled frequency scans of 45 GHz. The use of highly efficient waveguide frequency converters pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers will permit construction of compact, solid-state, room-temperature mid-infrared sources for use in trace-gas detection.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 16, 1844 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1976 (1)

Alexander, J. I.

Arbore, M. A.

K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. B 64, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Chou, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 21, 794 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical of Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 120.

Aschieri, P.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

S. J. Field, L. Huang, K. Wolfe, D. J. Bamford, and D. A. G. Deacon, in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers:?Applications and Issues, M. W. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 87.

Barbe, A.

Bortz, M. L.

M. L. Bortz and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 16, 1844 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Brown, L. R.

Byer, R. L.

Camy-Peyret, C.

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M.-H.

M.-H. Chou, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 21, 794 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical of Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 120.

Chu, S. N. G.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

De Micheli, M.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

S. J. Field, L. Huang, K. Wolfe, D. J. Bamford, and D. A. G. Deacon, in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers:?Applications and Issues, M. W. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 87.

Delacourt, D.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dlugokencky, E. J.

K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. B 64, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drobshoff, A.

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. B 64, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Chou, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 21, 794 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Bortz and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 16, 1844 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical of Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 120.

Field, S. J.

S. J. Field, L. Huang, K. Wolfe, D. J. Bamford, and D. A. G. Deacon, in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers:?Applications and Issues, M. W. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 87.

Flaud, J.-M.

Gamache, R. R.

Goldman, A.

Hertz, H. M.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L. W.

K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. B 64, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

S. J. Field, L. Huang, K. Wolfe, D. J. Bamford, and D. A. G. Deacon, in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers:?Applications and Issues, M. W. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 87.

Husson, N.

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D.

Jundt, D. H.

Kramper, P.

Lim, E. J.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mine, Y.

Mlynek, J.

Myers, L. E.

Ostrowsky, D. B.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, K. P.

K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. B 64, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Topfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 36, 8042 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, H. M.

Pine, A. S.

Poynter, R. L.

Rinsland, C. P.

Rothman, L. S.

Schiller, S.

Schneider, K.

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

Tittel, F. K.

K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. B 64, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Topfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 36, 8042 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Topfer, T.

Toth, R. A.

Waltman, S.

K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. B 64, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, K.

S. J. Field, L. Huang, K. Wolfe, D. J. Bamford, and D. A. G. Deacon, in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers:?Applications and Issues, M. W. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 87.

Zhang, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, Appl. Phys. B 64, 567 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Baldi, P. Aschieri, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical of Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 120.

S. J. Field, L. Huang, K. Wolfe, D. J. Bamford, and D. A. G. Deacon, in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers:?Applications and Issues, M. W. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 87.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a diode-pumped DFG spectrometer using a PPLN waveguide. APE, annealed proton exchange; Preamp., preamplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Idler power versus wavelength for a 6µm channel waveguide in PPLN with a QPM period of 18.6 µm. The pump laser was tuned from 780 to 795 nm, and the signal laser was fixed at 1010 nm. Interaction of multiple spatial modes in the waveguide is evident from the multiple peaks in the phase-matching curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of methane at 1.33 kPa in a 30-cm-long cell. The circles are plots of the ratio of the signal and the reference traces, both recorded as a 16-sweep average. Each sweep, performed at a 0.5-Hz rate, was detected by a lock-in amplifier with a 3-ms time constant, which corresponds to an equivalent noise bandwidth of 10 Hz in the ratio trace. The solid curve is a spectrum calculated with the hitran database and convoluted with a Lorentzian profile with a FWHM of 240 MHz.

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