Abstract

A novel integrated assembly process for miniature liquid-crystal-on-silicon displays using photodefinable benzocyclobutene resin is presented. Spin coating speed defines the cell gap, photolithography defines the cell perimeter and spacers, and thermocompression bonding provides the adhesion. The photodefined adhesive spacers provide thin liquid-crystal cell gap control <2.5 µm with excellent uniformity (±100 nm) for glass-on-glass and glass-on-silicon assemblies. The resin is compatible with common liquid-crystal alignment films and exhibits a bonding shear strength of 22±3.2 MPa?The assembly process flow and characterization of demonstration devices are described.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 403 (1996).
  3. M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).
  4. F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).
  5. I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. O’Hara, D. C. Burns, P. W. McOwan, and J. Goulay, Appl. Opt. 33, 2768 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. B. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, and R. P. Gale, Proc. SPIE 2691, 34 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. C. O’Mara, Liquid Crystal Flat Panel Displays:?Manufacturing, Science and Technology (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993).
  8. D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and R. A. Serati, Appl. Opt. 33, 2775 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. H. Ju, W. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1010 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. T. Kazlas, D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and S. Gilman, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 28, 877 (1997).
  11. “Processing Guide for Photo-Imageable BCB” (The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., 1995).
  12. L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. Digeronimo, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-24, 795 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. T. Kazlas, D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and S. Gilman, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 28, 877 (1997).

1996 (4)

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 403 (1996).

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

M. B. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, and R. P. Gale, Proc. SPIE 2691, 34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. H. Ju, W. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1010 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. Digeronimo, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-24, 795 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C. H.

L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. Digeronimo, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-24, 795 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, J.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Banas, D.

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

Batty, M.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Burns, D. C.

Chase, H.

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

Cunningham, J.

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

Cuomo, F.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Digeronimo, F.

L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. Digeronimo, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-24, 795 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, B.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Franklin, H.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Gale, R. P.

M. B. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, and R. P. Gale, Proc. SPIE 2691, 34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gilman, S.

P. T. Kazlas, D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and S. Gilman, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 28, 877 (1997).

Goodman, L. A.

L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. Digeronimo, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-24, 795 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Goulay, J.

Handschy, M. A.

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

Ipri, A.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Johnson, K. M.

P. T. Kazlas, D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and S. Gilman, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 28, 877 (1997).

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 403 (1996).

T. H. Ju, W. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1010 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and R. A. Serati, Appl. Opt. 33, 2775 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jose, D.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Ju, T. H.

T. H. Ju, W. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1010 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kazlas, P. T.

P. T. Kazlas, D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and S. Gilman, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 28, 877 (1997).

Lee, Y.-C.

T. H. Ju, W. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1010 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

T. H. Ju, W. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1010 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malzbender, R.

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

McGinn, J. T.

L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. Digeronimo, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-24, 795 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McKnight, D. J.

P. T. Kazlas, D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and S. Gilman, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 28, 877 (1997).

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 403 (1996).

T. H. Ju, W. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1010 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and R. A. Serati, Appl. Opt. 33, 2775 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McOwan, P. W.

Meadows, M. R.

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

O’Hara, A.

O’Mara, W. C.

W. C. O’Mara, Liquid Crystal Flat Panel Displays:?Manufacturing, Science and Technology (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993).

Rhoades, B.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Schuck, M. H.

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 403 (1996).

Serati, R. A.

Spitzer, M.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Spitzer, M. B.

M. B. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, and R. P. Gale, Proc. SPIE 2691, 34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, R.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Taylor, G.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Tilton, M.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Tsaur, B.-Y.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Underwood, I.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. O’Hara, D. C. Burns, P. W. McOwan, and J. Goulay, Appl. Opt. 33, 2768 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vass, D. G.

Vu, D.-P.

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

M. B. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, and R. P. Gale, Proc. SPIE 2691, 34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ward, D.

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. H. Ju, W. Lin, Y.-C. Lee, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1010 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

L. A. Goodman, J. T. McGinn, C. H. Anderson, and F. Digeronimo, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-24, 795 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. B. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, and R. P. Gale, Proc. SPIE 2691, 34 (1996).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (4)

P. T. Kazlas, D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and S. Gilman, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 28, 877 (1997).

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 403 (1996).

M. A. Handschy, D. Banas, H. Chase, J. Cunningham, R. Malzbender, M. R. Meadows, and D. Ward, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 327 (1996).

F. Cuomo, J. Atherton, A. Ipri, D. Jose, R. Stewart, G. Taylor, M. Batty, M. Spitzer, D.-P. Vu, B. Ellis, H. Franklin, B. Rhoades, M. Tilton, and B.-Y. Tsaur, SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 77 (1996).

Other (2)

“Processing Guide for Photo-Imageable BCB” (The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., 1995).

W. C. O’Mara, Liquid Crystal Flat Panel Displays:?Manufacturing, Science and Technology (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993).

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