Abstract

We demonstrate a high-resolution technique to measure the optical magnitude and phase responses of fiber gratings. The technique employs single-sideband modulation of an optical source and has spectral resolution in the hertz regime. The technique is demonstrated by measurement of the phase ripples of unapodized and apodized chirped gratings as well as the transmission spectrum of a π-phase-shifted grating. Although it is demonstrated on fiber gratings, the technique is applicable to any optical device.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Ouellette, Opt. Lett. 12, 847 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. Durkin, in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 2.45–2.48.
  4. K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Brooks, G. L. Vossler, and K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 32, 757 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kashyap, H.-G. Froehlich, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1807 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 33, 1170 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Grating parameters ?0L=50 and F=-3265 were used in Eqs.??(1)–(4) of Ref.??1.
  13. J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 33, 1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 32, 757 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, H.-G. Froehlich, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1807 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. J. Brooks, G. L. Vossler, and K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Ahmed, Z.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armes, D. J.

R. Kashyap, H.-G. Froehlich, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1807 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barcelos, S.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brodzeli, Z.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, C. J.

C. J. Brooks, G. L. Vossler, and K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 32, 757 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 32, 757 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dhosi, G.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, M.

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. Durkin, in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 2.45–2.48.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ennser, K.

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. Durkin, in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 2.45–2.48.

Froehlich, H.-G.

R. Kashyap, H.-G. Froehlich, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1807 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fuster, J. M.

J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 33, 1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geiger, H.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 32, 757 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hagimoto, K.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. Durkin, in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 2.45–2.48.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, H.-G. Froehlich, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1807 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, T.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, T.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 33, 1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 32, 757 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. Durkin, in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 2.45–2.48.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 33, 1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKee, P. F.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Ouellette, Opt. Lett. 12, 847 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. N.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. G.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sladen, F.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, T.

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swanton, A.

R. Kashyap, H.-G. Froehlich, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1807 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, K.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Thériault, S.

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Tucknott, J. A.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Volanthen, M.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 32, 757 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vossler, G. L.

C. J. Brooks, G. L. Vossler, and K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K. A.

C. J. Brooks, G. L. Vossler, and K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wojciechowicz, B.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. Durkin, in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 2.45–2.48.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. J. Brooks, G. L. Vossler, and K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (8)

B. J. Eggleton, T. Stephens, P. A. Krug, G. Dhosi, Z. Brodzeli, and F. Ouellette, Electron. Lett. 32, 1610 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, F. Sladen, and B. Wojciechowicz, Electron. Lett. 31, 1280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 32, 757 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, H.-G. Froehlich, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1807 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 33, 1170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, S. Thériault, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, K. Takiguchi, T. Kataoka, and K. Hagimoto, Electron. Lett. 30, 1755 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

K. Ennser, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, M. Ibsen, and M. Durkin, in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), pp. 2.45–2.48.

Grating parameters ?0L=50 and F=-3265 were used in Eqs.??(1)–(4) of Ref.??1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of a SSB signal through an optical device. PD, photodector; RF, radio frequency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental apparatus for SSB measurement technique. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured phase distortion for unapodized (solid curves) and apodized (dashed curves) gratings at various wavelengths. The dotted curves represent a theoretical calculation for the unapodized grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission passband for a π-phase-shifted grating measured with SSB (solid curve) and wavelength-scanning (dashed curve) techniques. The inset shows the full transmission spectrum.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

eSSBint=AΩexpiωct+BΩexpiωs±Ωt+c.c.,
eSSBoutt=AΩHωcexpiωct+iΦωc+BΩHωc±Ωexpiωc±Ωt+iΦωc±Ω+c.c.
irfoutt=kHωcHωc±Ω×cos±Ωt+Φωc±Ω-Φωc,

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