Abstract

We have obtained stationary bright spatial solitons in a planar photorefractive strontium barium niobate waveguide for visible light ranging from 514.5 to 780  nm. Even for larger wavelengths λ=1047 nm strong self-focusing of the beam was observed; however, input power had to be some orders of magnitude higher than for visible light for self-focusing to occur. Furthermore, we found transient self-trapping of red light λ=632.8 nm that corresponds to the formation of bright quasi-steady-state solitons.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. D. Eugenieva, R. V. Roussev, and S. G. Dinev, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1127 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. B 65, 511 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Kip, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 343 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Kip, M. Wesner, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1960 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

D. Kip, M. Wesner, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. D. Eugenieva, R. V. Roussev, and S. G. Dinev, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. B 65, 511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

1994 (4)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kostritskii and O. M. Kolesnikov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1674 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. W. Snyder and A. P. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 18, 482 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aulkemeyer, S.

Barthelemy, A. J.

M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bashaw, M. C.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P.

Crosgnani, B.

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crosignani, B.

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinev, S. G.

E. D. Eugenieva, R. V. Roussev, and S. G. Dinev, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DiPorto, P.

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eason, R.

Eugenieva, E. D.

E. D. Eugenieva, R. V. Roussev, and S. G. Dinev, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garret, M. H.

Huang, X.

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kazmarek, C.

Kemper, B.

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. B 65, 511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, M. Wesner, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. B 65, 511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, S. Aulkemeyer, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 20, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolesnikov, O. M.

Kostritskii, S. M.

Krätzig, E.

D. Kip, M. Wesner, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leach, P.

Marquez-Aguilar, P. A.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

D. Kip, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. B 65, 511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, S. Aulkemeyer, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 20, 1256 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morin, M.

Nee, I.

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. B 65, 511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R.

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pankrath, R.

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. B 65, 511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, E.

Roussev, R. V.

E. D. Eugenieva, R. V. Roussev, and S. G. Dinev, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, J. L.

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaby, M.

M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shandarov, V.

D. Kip, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Opt. Lett. 23, 343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Wesner, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, A. P.

Shih, M. F.

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

Stepanov, S.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wesner, M.

D. Kip, M. Wesner, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Kip, B. Kemper, I. Nee, R. Pankrath, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. B 65, 511 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Kip, M. Wesner, E. Krätzig, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Shalaby and A. J. Barthelemy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2736 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. D. Eugenieva, R. V. Roussev, and S. G. Dinev, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosgnani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the experimental setup for spatial soliton formation in planar waveguides. M’s, mirrors; CL’s, cylindrical lenses; ML’s, microscope lenses; U0, externally applied high voltage; SBN, SBN waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam diameter d (FWHM) at the exit face of the waveguide as a function of the electric field E for two different input powers Pin of He–Ne laser light. The background illumination with green light λ=514.5 nm is 30 mW/cm2. All diameters are measured in the steady state.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity profiles Iz at the exit face of the waveguide measured for different externally applied electric fields E. The profiles are for the measurement shown in Fig.  2 and an input power Pin=4.3 µW. For comparison, the solid curve shows the input beam profile (shifted for better viewing).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time evolution of the beam diameter d (FWHM) in the presence of different externally applied electric fields E. The input power of the He–Ne laser light is 55 µW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity profiles Iz at the exit face of the waveguide measured for different time delays Δt after the He–Ne laser beam is switched on. The profiles are for the measurement shown in Fig.  4 and E=1.8 kV/cm.

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