Abstract

Quadrature detection techniques have been applied to images obtained from a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with differently polarized beams to yield the real and the imaginary parts of the diffracted fields simultaneously. This approach eliminates the need for phase retrieval by providing complete information on the complex amplitude of the diffracted signal. We present results in which we demonstrate our ability to reconstruct two- and three-dimensional microscopic objects from their complex diffraction patterns.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1998

1997

1996

1994

M. G. Raymer, M. Beck, and D. F. McAlister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1137 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Maleki and A. J. Devaney, Opt. Eng. 33, 3243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1986

1979

C. A. DiMarzio, C. E. Harris, J. W. Bilbro, E. A. Weaver, D. C. Burnham, and J. N. Hallock, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1061 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. G. Raymer, M. Beck, and D. F. McAlister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1137 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilbro, J. W.

J. W. Bilbro, C. DiMarzio, D. Fitzjarrald, S. Johnson, and W. Jones, Appl. Opt. 25, 3952 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. DiMarzio, C. E. Harris, J. W. Bilbro, E. A. Weaver, D. C. Burnham, and J. N. Hallock, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1061 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, D. C.

C. A. DiMarzio, C. E. Harris, J. W. Bilbro, E. A. Weaver, D. C. Burnham, and J. N. Hallock, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1061 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, T. B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

deBoer, J. F.

Denzer, S. M.

Devaney, A. J.

M. H. Maleki and A. J. Devaney, Opt. Eng. 33, 3243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Devaney, in Inverse Methods in Electromagnetic Imaging, Part II, W. M. Boerner, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985).

DiMarzio, C.

DiMarzio, C. A.

D. O. Hogenboom and C. A. DiMarzio, Appl. Opt. 37, 2569 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. A. DiMarzio, C. E. Harris, J. W. Bilbro, E. A. Weaver, D. C. Burnham, and J. N. Hallock, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1061 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fitzjarrald, D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenlee, T. R.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groschen, R. P.

Hallock, J. N.

C. A. DiMarzio, C. E. Harris, J. W. Bilbro, E. A. Weaver, D. C. Burnham, and J. N. Hallock, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1061 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Harris, C. E.

C. A. DiMarzio, C. E. Harris, J. W. Bilbro, E. A. Weaver, D. C. Burnham, and J. N. Hallock, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1061 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogenboom, D. O.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iaconis, C.

Johnson, S.

Jones, W.

Kawata, S.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maleki, M. H.

M. H. Maleki and A. J. Devaney, Opt. Eng. 33, 3243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, D. F.

M. G. Raymer, M. Beck, and D. F. McAlister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1137 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Minami, S.

Nelson, J. S.

Noda, T.

Ohtsuka, K.

Peterson, R. W.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

M. G. Raymer, M. Beck, and D. F. McAlister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1137 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, G. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Walmsley, I. A.

Weaver, E. A.

C. A. DiMarzio, C. E. Harris, J. W. Bilbro, E. A. Weaver, D. C. Burnham, and J. N. Hallock, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1061 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

C. A. DiMarzio, C. E. Harris, J. W. Bilbro, E. A. Weaver, D. C. Burnham, and J. N. Hallock, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1061 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. H. Maleki and A. J. Devaney, Opt. Eng. 33, 3243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. G. Raymer, M. Beck, and D. F. McAlister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1137 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. J. Devaney, in Inverse Methods in Electromagnetic Imaging, Part II, W. M. Boerner, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Quadrature interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electric field derived from the measured diffraction pattern: (a) magnitude, (b) phase.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Predicted electric field from the double slit: (a) magnitude, (b) phase.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstruction of the double slit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstructed images of two crossed hairs separated by 6  mm. Each hair is 80 µm in diameter. (a) The image distance is set to 4.5  mm. The front hair is in focus. (b) The image distance is 10.4  mm, and the back hair is in focus. Note the scale change, which corresponds to the larger field of view at larger distances from the image plane.

Equations (1)

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Ex, y, z=2ik expikzexpikx2+y2/2z4πz×dxdyUx, yexpikx2+y2/2z×exp-ikxx+yy/z.

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