Abstract

We present experimental results demonstrating the red-shifted photochromic behavior of a gelatin film made from L93T, a genetic variant of bacteriorhodopsin. The red shift of the absorbance spectrum on illumination with visible light is due to a short M-state lifetime and a longer-lived O state whose absorption peaks at 610 nm. Pump–probe measurements show the O state to have a lifetime of approximately 2.2 s in the gelatin film, with a single exponential decay behavior. We also present holographic kinetic results for both red (633-nm) and blue (442-nm) readout wavelengths.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Opt. Lett. 16, 651 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, C. Bräuchle, Appl. Opt. 31, 1834 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. W. Song, C. Zhang, R. Gross, R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 18, 775 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Subramaniam, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. Rath, K. J. Rothschild, H. G. Khorana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 88, 6873 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Cao, L. S. Brown, R. Needleman, J. K. Lanyi, Biochemistry 32, 10239 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. D. Downie, Appl. Opt. 34, 6021 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

Y. Cao, L. S. Brown, R. Needleman, J. K. Lanyi, Biochemistry 32, 10239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. W. Song, C. Zhang, R. Gross, R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 18, 775 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, D. Oesterhelt, Opt. Lett. 16, 651 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Subramaniam, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. Rath, K. J. Rothschild, H. G. Khorana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 88, 6873 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birge, R.

Bräuchle, C.

Brown, L. S.

Y. Cao, L. S. Brown, R. Needleman, J. K. Lanyi, Biochemistry 32, 10239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, L. S. Brown, R. Needleman, J. K. Lanyi, Biochemistry 32, 10239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downie, J. D.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

S. Subramaniam, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. Rath, K. J. Rothschild, H. G. Khorana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 88, 6873 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, R.

Hampp, N.

Khorana, H. G.

S. Subramaniam, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. Rath, K. J. Rothschild, H. G. Khorana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 88, 6873 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanyi, J. K.

Y. Cao, L. S. Brown, R. Needleman, J. K. Lanyi, Biochemistry 32, 10239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Needleman, R.

Y. Cao, L. S. Brown, R. Needleman, J. K. Lanyi, Biochemistry 32, 10239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oesterhelt, D.

Rath, P.

S. Subramaniam, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. Rath, K. J. Rothschild, H. G. Khorana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 88, 6873 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothschild, K. J.

S. Subramaniam, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. Rath, K. J. Rothschild, H. G. Khorana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 88, 6873 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Q. W.

Subramaniam, S.

S. Subramaniam, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. Rath, K. J. Rothschild, H. G. Khorana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 88, 6873 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoma, R.

Zhang, C.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biochemistry (1)

Y. Cao, L. S. Brown, R. Needleman, J. K. Lanyi, Biochemistry 32, 10239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

S. Subramaniam, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. Rath, K. J. Rothschild, H. G. Khorana, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 88, 6873 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified schematic diagram of the BR photocycle for the L93T variant in an aqueous solution. Absorption spectra peak wavelengths are given in parentheses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance of a 633-nm probe beam through L93T and WT films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance of a 442-nm probe beam through a L93T film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency of a 633-nm readout beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency of a 442-nm readout beam.

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