Abstract

The effective χ(2) grating responsible for second-harmonic generation in bulk glasses was spatially resolved with a charge-selective etching technique. We observed a spatially varying structure with a period equal to the coherence length of the material. The measured period of the grating showed excellent agreement with the expected value. In addition, cross-sectional etching patterns show that in this regime of encoding intensities the flux responsible for the intense electric field is not unidirectional as predicted by most models.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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1996

1995

1993

R. L. MacDonald, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 103, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Dominic, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3446 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1990

1987

1982

Y. Ohmori, Y. Sasaki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 758 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

I. C. S. Carvalho, D. C. Reigada, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1995), paper SaC1.

Dominic, V.

V. Dominic, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3446 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farries, M. C.

M. C. Farries, St. P. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Dominic, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3446 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

M. C. Farries, St. P. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, F. C.

I. C. S. Carvalho, D. C. Reigada, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1995), paper SaC1.

Hering, E. N.

I. C. S. Carvalho, D. C. Reigada, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1995), paper SaC1.

Kamal, A.

Kyung, J. H.

Laurell, F.

I. C. S. Carvalho, D. C. Reigada, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1995), paper SaC1.

Lawandy, N. M.

Lesche, B.

I. C. S. Carvalho, D. C. Reigada, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1995), paper SaC1.

MacDonald, R. L.

R. L. MacDonald, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 103, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. L. MacDonald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 12, 57 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. S. Carvalho, D. C. Reigada, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1995), paper SaC1.

Ohmori, Y.

Y. Ohmori, Y. Sasaki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 758 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Österberg, U.

Payne, D. N.

M. C. Farries, St. P. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Reigada, D. C.

I. C. S. Carvalho, D. C. Reigada, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1995), paper SaC1.

Russell, St. P. J.

M. C. Farries, St. P. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Ohmori, Y. Sasaki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 758 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

Stolen, R. H.

Tom, H. W. K.

Weber, W. H.

Weinberger, D. A.

Electron. Lett.

M. C. Farries, St. P. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

Y. Ohmori, Y. Sasaki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 758 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

R. L. MacDonald, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 103, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. Dominic, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3446 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., in Schott-Glass: Optical Glass (Schott Glass Technologies, Duryea, Pa.1992), p. 6.

I. C. S. Carvalho, D. C. Reigada, F. C. Garcia, E. N. Hering, W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1995), paper SaC1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM image of a double-lobe etched pattern resulting from simultaneous exposure to 4 and 1 GW/cm2 of 1.064-μm and 532-nm radiation, respectively, in SK5 glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Filtered AFM image of an etched grating that resulted along the beam propagation direction (z axis) after seeded SHG preparation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional profiles of the etched grating at (a) trough, (b) peak, and (c) trough of a single period.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile along the length of the grating showing a clear periodic structure.

Equations (6)

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d E ( 2 ω ) d z = - i ω μ / χ ( 2 ) [ E ( ω ) ( x , y ) ] 2 exp ( i Δ k z ) ,
χ i j k ( 2 ) ( - 2 ω , ω , ω ) = χ i j k l ( 3 ) ( - 2 ω ; ω , ω , 0 ) E l dc ,
E l dc ( z ) cos ( Δ k z ) .
d E ( 2 ω ) d z = - i ω μ / χ ( 0 ) eff ( 2 ) cos ( Δ k z ) [ E ( ω ) ] 2 exp ( i Δ k z ) ,
L c 1 Δ k = 2 π c 2 ω ( n 2 ω - n ω ) .
n 2 ( λ ) = A 0 + A 1 λ 2 + A 2 λ - 2 + A 3 λ - 4 + A 4 λ - 6 + A 5 λ - 8 ,

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