Abstract

We report experimental observation of resonant two-photon photorefractive gratings in Pr-doped SBN:60. Long-lived 4f intermediate states significantly reduced intensity threshold, thus permitting use of cw lasers for the two-photon transitions. Both two-beam one-color two-photon gratings and three-beam two-color gratings were observed. We expect these results to be extended to other rare-earth dopants.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Vormann, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Ming, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Phys. Status Solidi A 92, 221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. See, for example, A. A. Kaplyanskii, R. M. Macfarlane, eds., Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare Earth Ions (Elsevier, New York, 1987).
  7. G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1968).
  8. R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, Opt. Eng. 26, 392 (1987).

1987 (1)

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, Opt. Eng. 26, 392 (1987).

1985 (1)

Y. Ming, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Phys. Status Solidi A 92, 221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Vormann, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cory, W. K.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, Opt. Eng. 26, 392 (1987).

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1968).

Ewbank, M. D.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, Opt. Eng. 26, 392 (1987).

Glass, A. M.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. F.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, Opt. Eng. 26, 392 (1987).

Kratzig, E.

Y. Ming, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Phys. Status Solidi A 92, 221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Vormann, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ming, Y.

Y. Ming, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Phys. Status Solidi A 92, 221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, Opt. Eng. 26, 392 (1987).

Oliver, J. R.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, Opt. Eng. 26, 392 (1987).

Orlowski, R.

Y. Ming, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Phys. Status Solidi A 92, 221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, K. F.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vormann, H.

H. Vormann, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, J. R. Oliver, M. D. Ewbank, W. F. Hall, Opt. Eng. 26, 392 (1987).

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

Y. Ming, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Phys. Status Solidi A 92, 221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

H. Vormann, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

See, for example, A. A. Kaplyanskii, R. M. Macfarlane, eds., Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare Earth Ions (Elsevier, New York, 1987).

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1968).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of Pr-doped SBN:60. The peak at 600 nm corresponds to the 1D2 state used as the intermediate level in this experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of gratings at two different laser wavelengths: upper trace, λ = 600 nm; lower trace, λ = 580 nm. The write pulses were on between t = 10 s and t = 30 s. The initial diffraction is partly due to shallow traps in the crystal, whereas the remnant grating is due to Pr ions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Square root of the remnant diffraction efficiency as functions of writing-energy flux: squares, varying exposure time at fixed writing intensity of 1.0 W/mm2; crosses, varying writing intensity at fixed exposure time of 0.6 s. The curve is a quadratic function, I 2 × constant.

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