Abstract

We propose a novel scheme for an optical frequency shifter that exploits cascaded second-order nonlinearity in a semiconductor material. The cascade comprises a sum-frequency interaction followed by a difference-frequency conversion in a coupled waveguide-to-vertical-cavity structure. For a 50-μm–long planar waveguide, efficient conversion is supported over an effective −3-dB bandwidth of 39 nm at a pump power density of 3.3 W/μm. A longitudinal in-plane cavity can reduce the required pump power density so that effective conversion occurs over a bandwidth of 20 nm at a pump power density of 6 mW/μm.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, H. Yasaka, M. Fukada, K. Oe, J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2153 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 906 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Inoue, H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Murata, A. Tomita, J. Shimizu, A. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1021 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. A. Ostrovskii, JETP Lett. 5, 272 (1967).
  8. N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Garanskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989)R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanhertzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 18, 1223 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. B. Khurgin, Y. J. Ding, Opt. Lett. 19, 1016 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1586 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. M. Marte, Phys. Rev. A 49, R3166 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, “Optical phase conjugation and waveguide coupling by cascading transverse second-harmonic and different frequency in the vertical cavity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

1995 (2)

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1586 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

M. A. M. Marte, Phys. Rev. A 49, R3166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin, Y. J. Ding, Opt. Lett. 19, 1016 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Murata, A. Tomita, J. Shimizu, A. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1021 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 906 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Garanskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989)R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanhertzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, H. Yasaka, M. Fukada, K. Oe, J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2153 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

L. A. Ostrovskii, JETP Lett. 5, 272 (1967).

Belashenkov, N. R.

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Garanskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989)R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanhertzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, J. W.

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1586 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin, Y. J. Ding, Opt. Lett. 19, 1016 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, “Optical phase conjugation and waveguide coupling by cascading transverse second-harmonic and different frequency in the vertical cavity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Fukada, M.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, H. Yasaka, M. Fukada, K. Oe, J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2153 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Garanskii, S. V.

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Garanskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989)R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanhertzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glance, B.

B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gnauk, A. H.

B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inochkin, M. V.

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Garanskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989)R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanhertzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 906 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jourdan, A.

B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. E.

Kawaguchi, H.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, H. Yasaka, M. Fukada, K. Oe, J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2153 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1586 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin, Y. J. Ding, Opt. Lett. 19, 1016 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, “Optical phase conjugation and waveguide coupling by cascading transverse second-harmonic and different frequency in the vertical cavity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Koren, U.

B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1586 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, “Optical phase conjugation and waveguide coupling by cascading transverse second-harmonic and different frequency in the vertical cavity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Magari, K.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, H. Yasaka, M. Fukada, K. Oe, J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2153 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marte, M. A. M.

M. A. M. Marte, Phys. Rev. A 49, R3166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, B. I.

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murata, S.

S. Murata, A. Tomita, J. Shimizu, A. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1021 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Newkirk, M. A.

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oe, K.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, H. Yasaka, M. Fukada, K. Oe, J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2153 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovskii, L. A.

L. A. Ostrovskii, JETP Lett. 5, 272 (1967).

Park, N.

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, J.

S. Murata, A. Tomita, J. Shimizu, A. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1021 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

S. Murata, A. Tomita, J. Shimizu, A. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1021 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

K. Inoue, H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

S. Murata, A. Tomita, J. Shimizu, A. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1021 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfield, J. M.

B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yasaka, H.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, H. Yasaka, M. Fukada, K. Oe, J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2153 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfield, U. Koren, A. H. Gnauk, H. M. Presby, A. Jourdan, Electron. Lett. 28, 1714 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Inoue, H. Toba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Murata, A. Tomita, J. Shimizu, A. Suzuki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1021 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, M. A. Newkirk, B. I. Miller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 906 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Kawaguchi, K. Magari, H. Yasaka, M. Fukada, K. Oe, J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2153 (1988).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

L. A. Ostrovskii, JETP Lett. 5, 272 (1967).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1586 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Garanskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989)R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanhertzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. A. M. Marte, Phys. Rev. A 49, R3166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, J. B. Khurgin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, S. J. Lee, “Optical phase conjugation and waveguide coupling by cascading transverse second-harmonic and different frequency in the vertical cavity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) V and (b) VH configurations for the OFS. The diagram in the middle is the detailed multilayer structure based on GaAs/AlGaAs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conversion efficiency versus detuning for the V configuration [see Fig. 1(a)] for P p = Psat.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Conversion efficiency versus detuning for the VH configuration [see Fig. 1(b)] for P p = Psat.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 E i ± - n i 2 c 2 2 E i ± t 2 = 1 c 2 2 t 2 [ χ ( 2 ) E s E 2 ω 0 ] ,
2 E s ± - n s 2 c 2 2 E s ± t 2 = 1 c 2 2 t 2 [ χ ( 2 ) E i E 2 ω 0 ] .
E j ± = A j ± ( z ) Ψ j ( x ) exp [ i ( ± k j z - ω j t ) ] + c . c . ,
d A i ± ( ξ ) d ξ κ A s * exp ( i 2 Δ β ξ ) ,
d A s ± ( ξ ) d ξ κ A i * exp ( i 2 Δ β ξ ) ,
P sat λ 2 n ω 0 2 n 2 ω 0 ( 1 - R 1 R 2 ) ( 1 - R 3 R 4 ) d eff 8 π 2 L η 0 [ χ 0 ( 2 ) ] 2 d .
A s + ( 0 ) = R 3 A s - ( 0 ) ,             A s - ( 1 ) = R 4 A s + ( 1 ) ,
A i + ( 0 ) = A 0 + R 3 A i - ( 0 ) ,             A i - ( 1 ) = R 4 A i + ( 1 ) ,
η = ( 1 - R 3 ) A s - ( 0 ) 2 A 0 2 .
f n = ( A 1 - R ) κ 2 [ 4 γ sin ( 2 γ ) cos ( 2 Δ β ) + 4 Δ β sin ( 2 Δ β ) - 4 Δ β cos ( 2 γ ) sin ( 2 Δ β ) ] 2 ,
f d = { 8 γ 2 [ R - cos ( 2 γ ) cos ( 2 Δ β ) ] - 8 γ Δ β sin ( 2 γ ) sin ( 2 Δ β ) } 2 + ( ( 1 - R ) sin ( 2 Δ β ) × { 4 γ 2 + 4 Δ β 2 [ cos ( 2 γ ) - 1 ] } ) 2 ,
η VH κ 2 sin 2 ( 2 Δ β ) 8 ( Δ β ) 2 ( 1 - R ) .
η V = κ 2 sin 2 γ ( Δ β ) 2 sin 2 γ + γ 2 cos 2 γ ,
η V κ 2 sin 2 Δ β Δ β 2 .

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