Abstract

Multiple-wavelength interferometry offers great flexibility in working distance and sensitivity by permitting an appropriate choice of the different wavelengths used, and it can be operated on rough surfaces. The accuracy of distance measurement with this approach depends on the stability and the calibration of the different wavelengths. A novel concept of a multiple-wavelength source that uses laser diodes has been developed. It allows one to obtain an absolute calibration of the synthetic wavelengths by the use of electronic beat-frequency measurements. Experimental results show that a calibration of the synthetic wavelength in the millimeter range with an accuracy of better than 10−5 is feasible.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Wyant, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 397–402.
  2. A. F. Fercher, H. Z. Hu, U. Vry, Appl. Opt. 24, 2181 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Dändliker, K. Hug, E. Zimmermann, U. Schnell, presented at the Second Japan–France Congress on Mechatronics, (Takamatsu, Japan, 1994).
  4. R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, E. Zimmerman, Opt. Eng. 34, 2407 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Ikegami, S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, Frequency Stabilization of Semiconductor Laser Diodes (Artech, London, 1995), Chaps. 3.2 and 4.1.
  6. T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Schmit, K. Creath, Appl. Opt. 34, 3610 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, E. Zimmerman, Opt. Eng. 34, 2407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit, K. Creath, Appl. Opt. 34, 3610 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1980

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1966

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Creath, K.

Dändliker, R.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, E. Zimmerman, Opt. Eng. 34, 2407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, E. Zimmermann, U. Schnell, presented at the Second Japan–France Congress on Mechatronics, (Takamatsu, Japan, 1994).

Fercher, A. F.

Hu, H. Z.

Hug, K.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, E. Zimmerman, Opt. Eng. 34, 2407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, E. Zimmermann, U. Schnell, presented at the Second Japan–France Congress on Mechatronics, (Takamatsu, Japan, 1994).

Ikegami, T.

T. Ikegami, S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, Frequency Stabilization of Semiconductor Laser Diodes (Artech, London, 1995), Chaps. 3.2 and 4.1.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, A.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Politch, J.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, E. Zimmerman, Opt. Eng. 34, 2407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

T. Ikegami, S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, Frequency Stabilization of Semiconductor Laser Diodes (Artech, London, 1995), Chaps. 3.2 and 4.1.

Schmit, J.

Schnell, U.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, E. Zimmermann, U. Schnell, presented at the Second Japan–France Congress on Mechatronics, (Takamatsu, Japan, 1994).

Sudo, S.

T. Ikegami, S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, Frequency Stabilization of Semiconductor Laser Diodes (Artech, London, 1995), Chaps. 3.2 and 4.1.

Vry, U.

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 397–402.

Zimmerman, E.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, E. Zimmerman, Opt. Eng. 34, 2407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, E.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, E. Zimmermann, U. Schnell, presented at the Second Japan–France Congress on Mechatronics, (Takamatsu, Japan, 1994).

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, J. Politch, E. Zimmerman, Opt. Eng. 34, 2407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. C. Wyant, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 397–402.

T. Ikegami, S. Sudo, Y. Sakai, Frequency Stabilization of Semiconductor Laser Diodes (Artech, London, 1995), Chaps. 3.2 and 4.1.

R. Dändliker, K. Hug, E. Zimmermann, U. Schnell, presented at the Second Japan–France Congress on Mechatronics, (Takamatsu, Japan, 1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three-wavelength source using laser diodes (LD’s) with absolute calibration by means of electronic beat-frequency measurement. PI’s, proportional-integrator regulators; TC’s, temperature controllers; BS’s, beam splitters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beat-frequency measurements for different gate times T of the frequency counter: (a) T = 100 ms, (b) T = 1 s, (c) T = 10 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured power spectral density of the frequency noise of the laser diodes when the feedback loop is closed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical setup used for the calibration of the synthetic wavelength by comparison with a HP laser interferometer: PBS, polarizing beam splitter; CC’s, corner cubes; P, polarizer; AOM, acousto-optic modulator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Displacement measurements on a range of 2 mm.

Equations (2)

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σ ν T 2 = 2 0 d f S δ ν ( f ) sin 4 ( π f T ) ( π f T ) 2 ,
S ν ( f ) with feedback = 1 1 + H ( f ) 2 S ν ( f ) free - running ,

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