Abstract

We study experimentally steady-state photorefractive screening solitons trapped in both transverse dimensions and measure their beam profiles as they propagate throughout the crystal. The solitons are observed to be axially symmetric, and they self-bend. We characterize the soliton dependence on the optical intensity, applied electric-field strength, and beam diameter.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994 );M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DePorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. The Gaussian beam here diffracts from 10 to 57 μm FWHM after 5.5 mm in a crystal, which corresponds to diffraction from 16.7 to 94 μm at the 1/e points. The diffracted value in Ref. 6 (≈100 μm) is 60 μm FWHM.
  9. Self-bending was first predicted for Kerr media byA. E. Kaplan, JETP Lett. 9, 59 (1969).
  10. A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, Opt. Lett. 20, 837 (1995 );Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995);in Digest of Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TC4.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Burak, W. Nasalski, Appl. Opt. 33, 6393 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. M. Gomez, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, in Digest of Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TC2.

1995 (3)

1994 (4)

D. Burak, W. Nasalski, Appl. Opt. 33, 6393 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994 );M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

Self-bending was first predicted for Kerr media byA. E. Kaplan, JETP Lett. 9, 59 (1969).

Anderson, D. Z.

Bashaw, M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burak, D.

Christodoulides, D. N.

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DePorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994 );M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DePorto, P.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DePorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DiPorto, P.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994 );M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez, C. M.

C. M. Gomez, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, in Digest of Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TC2.

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. E.

Self-bending was first predicted for Kerr media byA. E. Kaplan, JETP Lett. 9, 59 (1969).

Marquez-Aguilar, P. A.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gomez, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, in Digest of Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TC2.

Nasalski, W.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DePorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gomez, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, in Digest of Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TC2.

Segev, M.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DePorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994 );M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DePorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, J. L.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. R.

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gomez, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, in Digest of Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TC2.

Valley, G. C.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DePorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994 );M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gomez, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, in Digest of Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TC2.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994 );M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zozulya, A. A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DePorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

Self-bending was first predicted for Kerr media byA. E. Kaplan, JETP Lett. 9, 59 (1969).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994 ); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994 );M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, “Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); 74, 1978 (1995) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

The Gaussian beam here diffracts from 10 to 57 μm FWHM after 5.5 mm in a crystal, which corresponds to diffraction from 16.7 to 94 μm at the 1/e points. The diffracted value in Ref. 6 (≈100 μm) is 60 μm FWHM.

C. M. Gomez, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, in Digest of Photorefractive Materials, Effects, and Devices Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TC2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-view photograph of a 10-μm soliton (upper trace) and a normally diffracting beam (lower trace) propagating along a 5.5-mm crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Horizontal and vertical profiles of the input (upper traces), diffracted output (middle traces), and soliton output (lower traces) beams when the input face of the crystal is (a) at the minimum waist of the input beam and (b) 500 μm away from the minimum waist.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left: Beam profiles at the crystal input face (upper traces) and soliton beam profiles, normalized to their peak intensities, at various output planes of the specially cut SBN crystal (lower traces). The values give the actual sizes of the profiles, but their shapes are as imaged (with the astigmatism introduced by Snell’s law). Upper right: The specially cut crystal and its crystalline orientation; lower right: Snell’s law in this configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left: Widths of a 2-D axially symmetric soliton measured in two different SBN crystals and the calculated width of a 1-D soliton as a function of the ratio between the soliton peak intensity and the background irradiance. Right: Self-bending offset as a function of intensity ratio for solitons in these crystals.

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