Abstract

Two diffraction gratings placed in front of a flat surface generate an interference pattern representing the surface deformations. The interference pattern is achromatic and has an equivalent wavelength between 4 and 40 μm, depending on the grating frequencies and the viewing angle. Using phase-shifting techniques, the grating interferometer provides high-precision profile measurements of both smooth and rough surfaces.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Barus, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 149, Pt. 1, Chap. 11 (1911).
  2. F.H. Smith, U.S. patent3,958,884 (April16, 1976).
  3. B. J. Chang, R. Alferness, E. N. Leith, Appl. Opt. 14, 1592 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 14.
  5. W. Jaerisch, G. Makosch, Appl. Opt. 12, 1552 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. N. Yeskov, S. N. Koreshev, A. G. Seregin, Proc. SPIE 2340, 461 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. M. Boone, P. Jacquot, Proc. SPIE 1554A, 512 (1991).

1994 (1)

D. N. Yeskov, S. N. Koreshev, A. G. Seregin, Proc. SPIE 2340, 461 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. M. Boone, P. Jacquot, Proc. SPIE 1554A, 512 (1991).

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

1911 (1)

C. Barus, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 149, Pt. 1, Chap. 11 (1911).

Alferness, R.

Barus, C.

C. Barus, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 149, Pt. 1, Chap. 11 (1911).

Boone, P. M.

P. M. Boone, P. Jacquot, Proc. SPIE 1554A, 512 (1991).

Bruning, J. H.

J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 14.

Chang, B. J.

Greivenkamp, J. E.

J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 14.

Jacquot, P.

P. M. Boone, P. Jacquot, Proc. SPIE 1554A, 512 (1991).

Jaerisch, W.

Koreshev, S. N.

D. N. Yeskov, S. N. Koreshev, A. G. Seregin, Proc. SPIE 2340, 461 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Makosch, G.

Seregin, A. G.

D. N. Yeskov, S. N. Koreshev, A. G. Seregin, Proc. SPIE 2340, 461 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, F.H.

F.H. Smith, U.S. patent3,958,884 (April16, 1976).

Yeskov, D. N.

D. N. Yeskov, S. N. Koreshev, A. G. Seregin, Proc. SPIE 2340, 461 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. (1)

C. Barus, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 149, Pt. 1, Chap. 11 (1911).

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. N. Yeskov, S. N. Koreshev, A. G. Seregin, Proc. SPIE 2340, 461 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Boone, P. Jacquot, Proc. SPIE 1554A, 512 (1991).

Other (2)

F.H. Smith, U.S. patent3,958,884 (April16, 1976).

J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 14.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Grating interferometer for flatness testing. G1 diffracts the source light into two beams, A and B, and G2 brings them back together again at the object surface. The sensitivity of the interferometer to surface deformation is caused by the difference in the incident angles of beams A and B on the object surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wrapped phase map for a 30-mm-diameter portion of a brush-finished aluminum disk. The 0.4-μm rms surface roughness is too large for conventional visible-wavelength interferometers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Processed surface topography data generated from the phase map in Fig. 2. The rms measurement repeatability is 80 nm.

Equations (6)

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g = g 0 + V g 0 cos ( 2 π z / Λ ) ,
Λ = λ cos ( β ) cos ( α )
sin ( α ) = sin ( γ ) + N 1 λ ,
sin ( β ) = sin ( γ ) N 1 λ ,
cos ( α ) 1 1 2 sin 2 ( α ) ,
Λ 1 2 N 1 sin ( γ ) .

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