Abstract

We have demonstrated fast formation [~1500 pulses at ~1 (J/cm2)/pulse] of fiber gratings with highly negative index modulations (~−3 × 10−4). We have found that the maximum negative index modulations that are achieved do not depend on the pulse intensities, although the inverse of the time taken to reach the negative index-modulation maximum varies linearly with the pulse intensities. This prompts us to use a three-energy-level system to model the photosensitivity in boron-doped germanosilicate fiber. All the necessary parameters of the model can be determined from a single growth measurement of the average index change, and the model’s prediction fits well the measured index-modulation growth.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. L. Cruz, D. N. Payne, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 82.
  5. P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, Electron. Lett. 30, 860 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1995

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, Electron. Lett. 30, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Byron, K. C.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, Electron. Lett. 30, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. L. Cruz, D. N. Payne, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 82.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. L. Cruz, D. N. Payne, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 82.

Douay, M.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, Electron. Lett. 30, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Farley, R. J.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, Electron. Lett. 30, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Georges, T.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giedl, R.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, Electron. Lett. 30, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Legoubin, S.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. L. Cruz, D. N. Payne, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 82.

Poumellec, B.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. L. Cruz, D. N. Payne, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 82.

Sie, W. X.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, Electron. Lett. 30, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Sie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. L. Cruz, D. N. Payne, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 82.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Growth of index modulation and average index when we are writing with a KrF excimer laser at 0.31 (J/cm2)/pulse, together with the fits from the proposed model. The inset shows the energy diagram of the proposed model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating growth at different writing-pulse intensities. The inset shows the dependence of the growth rate and maximum index modulation of the negative-index gratings on different writing-pulse intensities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplification of a grating by a uniform exposure at 0.31 (J/cm2)/pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stability tests of three gratings. The positive-index grating was written until the positive index-modulation maximum. The negative-index grating was written until the negative index-modulation maximum.

Equations (3)

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Δ n tot ( t ) = S 3 N [ 1 + S 2 - S 3 S 3 B 12 B 12 - B 23 exp ( - B 23 ρ t ) + S 3 B 23 - S 2 B 12 S 3 ( B 12 - B 23 ) ] exp ( - B 12 ρ t ) ,
T max = 1 ( B 12 - B 23 ) ρ ln  S 3 B 23 - S 2 B 12 ( S 3 - S 2 ) B 23 .
Δ n mod ( t ) = 2 Λ - Λ / 2 Λ / 2 Δ n tot ( z , t ) cos ( 2 π z Λ ) d z .

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