Abstract

A new amorphous silicon waveguide is realized by use of amorphous silicon carbon as cladding material. The structure is characterized both experimentally and theoretically, and its application for optical interconnections in photonic integrated circuits on silicon motherboards is proposed. The fabrication process is based on low-temperature (220 °C) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition and is compatible with standard microelectronic processes. Propagation losses of 1.8 dB/cm have been measured at the fiber-optic wavelength of 1.3 μm. A strong thermo-optic coefficient has been measured in this material at this wavelength and exploited for the realization of a light-intensity modulator based on a Fabry–Perot interferometer that is tunable by temperature.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Erman, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 27.
  2. C. Artigue, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 304.
  3. H. Moisan, M. Moisan, D. Pavy, F. Le Damany, D. Mehadji, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 201.
  4. Y. Yamada, A. Takagi, I. Ogawa, M. Kawachi, M. Kobayashi, Electron. Lett. 29, 444 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Moddel, D. A. Anderson, W. Paul, Phys. Rev. B 22, 1918 (1980).
  6. A. Madan, M. P. Shaw, The Physics and Application of Amorphous Semiconductors (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), Chap. 2, p. 14.
  7. R. A. Soref, Proc. IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Peuzin, M. Olivier, A. Chenevas-Paule, R. Cuchet, Opt. Commun. 51, 11 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Cocorullo, I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 32, 83 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1993

Y. Yamada, A. Takagi, I. Ogawa, M. Kawachi, M. Kobayashi, Electron. Lett. 29, 444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, Proc. IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. Cocorullo, I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 32, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984

J. C. Peuzin, M. Olivier, A. Chenevas-Paule, R. Cuchet, Opt. Commun. 51, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

G. Moddel, D. A. Anderson, W. Paul, Phys. Rev. B 22, 1918 (1980).

Anderson, D. A.

G. Moddel, D. A. Anderson, W. Paul, Phys. Rev. B 22, 1918 (1980).

Artigue, C.

C. Artigue, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 304.

Chenevas-Paule, A.

J. C. Peuzin, M. Olivier, A. Chenevas-Paule, R. Cuchet, Opt. Commun. 51, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 32, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cuchet, R.

J. C. Peuzin, M. Olivier, A. Chenevas-Paule, R. Cuchet, Opt. Commun. 51, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Erman, M.

M. Erman, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 27.

Kawachi, M.

Y. Yamada, A. Takagi, I. Ogawa, M. Kawachi, M. Kobayashi, Electron. Lett. 29, 444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Yamada, A. Takagi, I. Ogawa, M. Kawachi, M. Kobayashi, Electron. Lett. 29, 444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Damany, F.

H. Moisan, M. Moisan, D. Pavy, F. Le Damany, D. Mehadji, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 201.

Madan, A.

A. Madan, M. P. Shaw, The Physics and Application of Amorphous Semiconductors (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), Chap. 2, p. 14.

Mehadji, D.

H. Moisan, M. Moisan, D. Pavy, F. Le Damany, D. Mehadji, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 201.

Moddel, G.

G. Moddel, D. A. Anderson, W. Paul, Phys. Rev. B 22, 1918 (1980).

Moisan, H.

H. Moisan, M. Moisan, D. Pavy, F. Le Damany, D. Mehadji, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 201.

Moisan, M.

H. Moisan, M. Moisan, D. Pavy, F. Le Damany, D. Mehadji, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 201.

Ogawa, I.

Y. Yamada, A. Takagi, I. Ogawa, M. Kawachi, M. Kobayashi, Electron. Lett. 29, 444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, M.

J. C. Peuzin, M. Olivier, A. Chenevas-Paule, R. Cuchet, Opt. Commun. 51, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Paul, W.

G. Moddel, D. A. Anderson, W. Paul, Phys. Rev. B 22, 1918 (1980).

Pavy, D.

H. Moisan, M. Moisan, D. Pavy, F. Le Damany, D. Mehadji, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 201.

Peuzin, J. C.

J. C. Peuzin, M. Olivier, A. Chenevas-Paule, R. Cuchet, Opt. Commun. 51, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo, I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 32, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. P.

A. Madan, M. P. Shaw, The Physics and Application of Amorphous Semiconductors (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), Chap. 2, p. 14.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, Proc. IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, A.

Y. Yamada, A. Takagi, I. Ogawa, M. Kawachi, M. Kobayashi, Electron. Lett. 29, 444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, A. Takagi, I. Ogawa, M. Kawachi, M. Kobayashi, Electron. Lett. 29, 444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Yamada, A. Takagi, I. Ogawa, M. Kawachi, M. Kobayashi, Electron. Lett. 29, 444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Cocorullo, I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 32, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. C. Peuzin, M. Olivier, A. Chenevas-Paule, R. Cuchet, Opt. Commun. 51, 11 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

G. Moddel, D. A. Anderson, W. Paul, Phys. Rev. B 22, 1918 (1980).

Proc. IEEE

R. A. Soref, Proc. IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Madan, M. P. Shaw, The Physics and Application of Amorphous Semiconductors (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), Chap. 2, p. 14.

M. Erman, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 27.

C. Artigue, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 7 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 304.

H. Moisan, M. Moisan, D. Pavy, F. Le Damany, D. Mehadji, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 201.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of the realized planar waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Infrared absorption spectra for a-Si thin films deposited at 220 and 150 °C. The other process parameters for these films are the same as those listed in Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized experimental light intensity versus distance measured with the cutback method at the end of the α-Si:H waveguide described in the text. The light source is a λ = 1.3 μm distributed-feedback laser diode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmitted intensity versus temperature of a 2.52-mm-long waveguide obtained by cleavage. The periodic pattern demonstrates that the device is in fact a Fabry–Perot interferometer whose longitudinal modes change with temperature. The light source is a λ = 1.3 μm distributed-feedback laser diode.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Deposition Parameters, Refractive Index n, and Absorption Coefficient α Measured at λ= 1.3 μm

Equations (2)

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I t = I 0 ( 1 + 4 F R 2 π sin 2 ϕ ) - 1 ,
ϕ = ( 2 π n Si l ) / λ ,

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