Abstract

We report on the fixing of photorefractive volume holograms in potassium lithium tantalate niobate with ionic gratings and also with ferroelectric domain-reversed gratings. A diffraction efficiency of 55% is obtained with domain reversal in a 2-mm-thick ferroelectric phase K1−yLiyTa1−xNbxO3 crystal doped with Co, V, and Ti. We measured the decay rate of the domain gratings and also of the initial electron gratings and ion gratings. The domain grating decay agrees with Vogel–Fulcher fits. The activation energies for ionic and electronic conductivity are 0.76 and 0.12 eV, respectively.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. L. J. Arizmendi, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Leyva, D. Engin, X. Tong, A. Yariv, A. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 20, 1319 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. G. J. Fulcher, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 8, 339 (1925).
    [CrossRef]

1995

1994

F. Kahmann, R. Pankrath, R. A. Rupp, Opt. Commun. 107, 6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Lett. 18, 1262 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. S. Kewitsch, A. Yariv, G. Rakujic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, S. Yagi, A. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1459 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

L. J. Arizmendi, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1972

F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1925

G. J. Fulcher, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 8, 339 (1925).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A.

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L. J.

L. J. Arizmendi, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bekker, A.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bismuth, G.

F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Engin, D.

Fischer, B.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fulcher, G. J.

G. J. Fulcher, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 8, 339 (1925).
[CrossRef]

Hofmeister, R.

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, S. Yagi, A. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1459 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kahmann, F.

F. Kahmann, R. Pankrath, R. A. Rupp, Opt. Commun. 107, 6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kewitsch, A. S.

A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Lett. 18, 1262 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. S. Kewitsch, A. Yariv, G. Rakujic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

Micheron, F.

F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

Pankrath, R.

F. Kahmann, R. Pankrath, R. A. Rupp, Opt. Commun. 107, 6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rakujic, G.

M. Segev, A. S. Kewitsch, A. Yariv, G. Rakujic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R. A.

F. Kahmann, R. Pankrath, R. A. Rupp, Opt. Commun. 107, 6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

A. S. Kewitsch, M. Segev, A. Yariv, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Lett. 18, 1262 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. S. Kewitsch, A. Yariv, G. Rakujic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.

Yagi, S.

R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, S. Yagi, A. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1459 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, A. Bekker, B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2619 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. S. Kewitsch, A. Yariv, G. Rakujic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

G. J. Fulcher, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 8, 339 (1925).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. J. Arizmendi, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F. Kahmann, R. Pankrath, R. A. Rupp, Opt. Commun. 107, 6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, S. Yagi, A. Agranat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1459 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for holographic writing, fixing, and readout. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Barkhausen jumps during recording of the hologram in a KLTN-doped crystal. (a) The total beam intensity 0.3 W/cm2. The time scale is 1 s. The upper curve represents current cross the crystal; the bottom curve is the diffraction efficiency. (b) The total beam intensity is 0.4 W/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decay rate of ionic, electronic, and domain gratings in a KLTN:Co, Ti, V crystal.

Equations (2)

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τ T = τ 0 exp ( E a / K B T ) .
E a = E T T - T f ,

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