Abstract

Silver hollow nickel waveguides have been fabricated based on the outer-coating method with multiple inner dielectric layers composed of germanium and zinc sulfide. By choosing the sputtering conditions for germanium and zinc sulfide properly, we have fabricated, for the first time to our knowledge, a low-loss waveguide with multiple inner dielectric layers for Er:YAG laser light transmission.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 136 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, T. Hashimoto, Appl. Opt. 31, 5114 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 32, 6598 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. E. Morrow, G. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2131, 18 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. K. Nubling, J. A. Harrington, Appl. Opt. 35, 372 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Harrington, Y. Matsuura, Proc. SPIE 2396, 4 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, Proc. SPIE 2677, 64 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 141 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. K. Nubling, J. A. Harrington, Appl. Opt. 35, 372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, Proc. SPIE 2677, 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. A. Harrington, Y. Matsuura, Proc. SPIE 2396, 4 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

C. E. Morrow, G. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2131, 18 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Croitoru, N.

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dror, J.

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertl, T.

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gannot, I.

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, G.

C. E. Morrow, G. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2131, 18 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, Proc. SPIE 2677, 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Nubling, J. A. Harrington, Appl. Opt. 35, 372 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Harrington, Y. Matsuura, Proc. SPIE 2396, 4 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

Hongo, A.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, T. Hashimoto, Appl. Opt. 31, 5114 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Inberg, A.

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, S.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

Matsuura, M.

M. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, Y.

Miyagi, M.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 32, 6598 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Morosawa, K.

Morrow, C. E.

C. E. Morrow, G. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2131, 18 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G. J.

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nubling, R. K.

Saito, M.

Schrunder, S.

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimomura, T.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shiota, T.

Suzumura, M.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tschepe, J.

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

I. Gannot, S. Schrunder, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Muller, N. Croitoru, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

M. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 141 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

C. E. Morrow, G. Gu, Proc. SPIE 2131, 18 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Harrington, Y. Matsuura, Proc. SPIE 2396, 4 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Y. Kato, M. Suzumura, S. Kubota, Y. Wang, T. Shimomura, Proc. SPIE 2677, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, Proc. SPIE 2677, 64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the mult/Ag hollow nickel waveguide composed of Ge and ZnS layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Attenuation of the HE11 mode in the mult/Ag hollow waveguide (inner diameter 800 μm) designed for Er:YAG laser light. For comparison, attenuations of Ag hollow waveguides with a single dielectric layer (Ge or ZnS) are also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation spectrum of the mult/Ag hollow nickel waveguide (800 μm × 20 cm) excited by a Gaussian beam with a FWHM of 4.3°, which is much larger than the FWHM of the HE11 mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Input beam profile at the lens position from the Er:YAG laser (b) Output beam profile from the waveguide at 5 cm from the output end of the waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Attenuation of the mult/Ag hollow waveguide (800 μm × 20 cm) for Er:YAG laser light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative transmittances of mult/Ag and Ag hollow waveguide (800 μm × 20 cm) for oblique incidence.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optimum Conditions of Sputtering for Waveguides Composed of Various Materials

Equations (1)

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d i = λ 4 ( n i 2 1 ) 1 / 2 , n i = 2 . 2 = 4 . 0 i = ZnS i = Ge , d = λ 2 π ( n ZnS 2 1 ) 1 / 2 tan 1 × [ n ZnS ( n ZnS 2 1 ) 1 / 4 n ZnS n Ge ( n Ge 2 1 n ZnS 2 1 ) 1 / 2 ] ,

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