Abstract

We measured, for the first time to our knowledge, a net two-beam coupling gain in an organic crystal. Our photorefractive measurements were carried out in nominally pure organic crystals of 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium toluene-p-sulfonate (DAST). Because of its large electro-optic coefficient, r11 = 83 pm/V at λ = 750 nm, and a photoconductivity of up to σ = 6.7 × 10−12 Ω−1 cm−1 at intensity I = 570 mW/cm2, DAST showed a gain of 2.2 cm−1 for an absorption of α = 1.8 cm−1. With grating buildup times below 1 s at light intensities of 300 mW/cm2, DAST is a promising candidate for photorefractive applications in the near infrared.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Shi, D. Psaltis, A. Marrakchi, J. A. R. Tanuay, Appl. Opt. 22, 3665 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 18, 778 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.
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    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

1993 (3)

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

Bosshard, C.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, in Advances in Nonlinear Optics, A. F. Garito, F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 193–223.

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducret, R.

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Eason, R. W.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garret, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flörsheimer, M.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, in Advances in Nonlinear Optics, A. F. Garito, F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 193–223.

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garret, M. H.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garret, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 18, 778 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Voit, P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 12, 769 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, in Advances in Nonlinear Optics, A. F. Garito, F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 193–223.

Hribek, P.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garret, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 18, 778 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hullinger, J.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, in Advances in Nonlinear Optics, A. F. Garito, F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 193–223.

Kaatz, P.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, in Advances in Nonlinear Optics, A. F. Garito, F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 193–223.

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Lam, J. F.

G. C. Valley, J. F. Lam, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

MacCormack, J. F. S.

Marder, S. R.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrakchi, A.

Moerner, W. E.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Pan, F.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prêtre, P.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, in Advances in Nonlinear Optics, A. F. Garito, F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 193–223.

Psaltis, D.

Ross, G. W.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garret, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garret, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffer, W. P.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlesser, R.

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 18, 778 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 18, 778 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, in Advances in Nonlinear Optics, A. F. Garito, F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 193–223.

Tanuay, J. A. R.

Twieg, R. J.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, J. F. Lam, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Voit, E.

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garret, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hullinger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, P. Günter, in Advances in Nonlinear Optics, A. F. Garito, F. Kajzar, eds. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 193–223.

G. C. Valley, J. F. Lam, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of the polished DAST crystal used for photorefractive measurements for the incident light polarized parallel to the dielectric x1 axis of the crystal (solid curve) and for light polarized perpendicular to that axis (along x3) (dashed curve). The crystal thickness is 1.2 mm. For completeness the absorption data for light polarized along the dielectric x2 axis measured in another sample (thickness d = 3.4 mm) are also shown (dotted curve). The inset shows the nonlinear-optical stilbazoliumcation and the tosylate anion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dark conductivity and photoconductivity at λ = 750 nm of the 3.14-mm-thick polished DAST sample with painted electrodes on the (100) surfaces (electrode distance 3.37 mm). The fitted curve is an exponential function of the form σ(I) = σdark + 8.4 × 10−12 × I0.67. Inset: A log–log plot of the photoconductivity permits the determination of the exponent of the power law (n = 0.67).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photorefractive gain at λ = 750 nm measured in the 1.2-mm-thick crystal as a function of the grating period in the standard symmetric two-beam coupling geometry (light intensity 300 mW/cm2). The solid curve is a fit with the expression for Γ given by Eq. (1). The inset shows the symmetric geometry used in the two-beam coupling experiments.

Equations (2)

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Γ = R 2 π λ cos 1 ( θ int ) n 3 r eff cos ( 2 θ int ) E q E d E q + E d ,
τ = 1 + K 2 L D 2 1 + K 2 L S 2 τ di ,

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