Abstract

We describe a new approach for constructing large-scale artificial neural networks. The novelty of our approach is based on the concept of electroholography (EH), which permits interconnecting of electronic neurons by minute-volume holograms, using the voltage-controlled photorefractive effect in paraelectric crystals. Crystals of potassium lithium tantalate niobate (KLTN) in the paraelectric phase are shown to be suitable for implementing this concept. A small network composed of two KLTN crystals on which holographic connections are recorded is presented to demonstrate the EH approach.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Holler, in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems III, R. P. Lippman, J. E. Moody, D. S. Touretzky, eds. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1991).
  2. G. Yayla, A. V. Krishamoorthy, G. C. Marsden, S. C. Esener, Proc. IEEE 82, 1749 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, D. Psaltis, Opt. Comput. Processing 1, 3 (1991).
  4. A. J. Agranat, Physika A 200, 608 (1993).
  5. A. J. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 14, 1017 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Leyva, D. Engin, X. Tong, A. Yariv, A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 20, 1319 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. J. Agranat, M. Razvag, M. Balberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2469 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, Proc. SPIE 1735, 17 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. J. Agranat, M. Razvag, M. Balberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

G. Yayla, A. V. Krishamoorthy, G. C. Marsden, S. C. Esener, Proc. IEEE 82, 1749 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. J. Agranat, Physika A 200, 608 (1993).

1992 (2)

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, Proc. SPIE 1735, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, D. Psaltis, Opt. Comput. Processing 1, 3 (1991).

1989 (1)

Agranat, A. J.

Balberg, M.

A. J. Agranat, M. Razvag, M. Balberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beratan, H.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, Proc. SPIE 1735, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Corbin, M.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, Proc. SPIE 1735, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Engin, D.

Esener, S. C.

G. Yayla, A. V. Krishamoorthy, G. C. Marsden, S. C. Esener, Proc. IEEE 82, 1749 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, C.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, Proc. SPIE 1735, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hofmeister, R.

Holler, M. A.

M. A. Holler, in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems III, R. P. Lippman, J. E. Moody, D. S. Touretzky, eds. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1991).

Kobayashi, S.

A. A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, D. Psaltis, Opt. Comput. Processing 1, 3 (1991).

Krishamoorthy, A. V.

G. Yayla, A. V. Krishamoorthy, G. C. Marsden, S. C. Esener, Proc. IEEE 82, 1749 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

Marsden, G. C.

G. Yayla, A. V. Krishamoorthy, G. C. Marsden, S. C. Esener, Proc. IEEE 82, 1749 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McKenney, S.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, Proc. SPIE 1735, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M. A.

A. A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, D. Psaltis, Opt. Comput. Processing 1, 3 (1991).

Owen, R.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, Proc. SPIE 1735, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

A. A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, D. Psaltis, Opt. Comput. Processing 1, 3 (1991).

Razvag, M.

A. J. Agranat, M. Razvag, M. Balberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.

Yamamura, A. A.

A. A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, D. Psaltis, Opt. Comput. Processing 1, 3 (1991).

Yariv, A.

Yayla, G.

G. Yayla, A. V. Krishamoorthy, G. C. Marsden, S. C. Esener, Proc. IEEE 82, 1749 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. J. Agranat, M. Razvag, M. Balberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comput. Processing (1)

A. A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, D. Psaltis, Opt. Comput. Processing 1, 3 (1991).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Physika A (1)

A. J. Agranat, Physika A 200, 608 (1993).

Proc. IEEE (1)

G. Yayla, A. V. Krishamoorthy, G. C. Marsden, S. C. Esener, Proc. IEEE 82, 1749 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, Proc. SPIE 1735, 17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. A. Holler, in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems III, R. P. Lippman, J. E. Moody, D. S. Touretzky, eds. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of one neuron with its holographic synaptic connections. (b) Schematic diagram of a two-dimensional array of EH neurons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for recording holograms on two small crystals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simultaneous reconstruction of two holograms written on two crystals with one reference beam while an external field of 1 kV/cm is applied to (a) one crystal and (b) the second crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneous reconstruction of two holograms while an external field of 1 kV/cm is applied to both crystals.

Equations (2)

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δ [ Δ n ( x ) ] = n 0 3 g 2 E 0 E sc ( x ) ,
h i = j = 1 J KI 0 W ij V j ,

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