Abstract

The accurate, quantitative analysis of absorption and scattering properties in tissue is a central problem in biochemical optics, in particular for the determination of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations. Because of light scattering, the absolute concentrations of these chromophores (i.e., the absorption coefficient) cannot easily be inferred. A new method for the estimation of the absorption coefficients in scattering media, based on measurements obtained from an intensity-modulated optical spectrometer, is proposed. The ratios of the changes in attenuation and phase that are induced by changes in the absorption coefficient give a good approximation of the absorption coefficient.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. B. Fishkin, P. T. So, A. E. Cerussi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, Appl. Opt. 34, 1143 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Duncan, T. L. Whitlock, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1888, 248 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, R. Haskell, Appl. Opt. 32, 607 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. J. Madsen, E. R. Anderson, R. C. Haskell, B. J. Tromberg, Opt. Lett. 19, 1934 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 475–482.
  11. M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

A. Duncan, T. L. Whitlock, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1888, 248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, R. Haskell, Appl. Opt. 32, 607 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Anderson, E. R.

Arridge, S.

S. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, B.

Bohren, F.

F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 475–482.

Cerussi, A. E.

Chance, B.

Cope, M.

A. Duncan, T. L. Whitlock, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1888, 248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Delpy, D. T.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, T. L. Whitlock, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1888, 248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, T. L. Whitlock, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1888, 248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fantini, S.

Farrell, J.

J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishkin, J.

Fishkin, J. B.

Franceschini, M. A.

Gratton, E.

Haskell, R.

Haskell, R. C.

Huffman, D. R.

F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 475–482.

Madsen, S. J.

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Oda, M.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, W.

W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

Svaasand, L. O.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tromberg, J.

Tsay, T.-T.

Whitlock, T. L.

A. Duncan, T. L. Whitlock, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1888, 248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B.

Wilson, B. C.

J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Duncan, T. L. Whitlock, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1888, 248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 475–482.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Qa = (∂A/∂μa)/(Φ/∂μa) as a function of μa calculated for values of μs′ = 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 mm–1 (vm = 200 MHz, n = 1.33, r = 30 mm). The horizontal lines indicate Qa, obtained for the different laser wavelengths of the IMOS in the phantom experiment described below (compare with Figs. 2 and 3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficient μa = μaw + μad of the liquid phantom, where μaw is the water absorption and μad is the dye absorption for a concentration of cd = 1.40 × 10−5 vol/vol. The dots are the experimental values derived from measurements of Qa and the true μs′ values (see Figs. 1 and 3). The error bars indicate the influence of variations by ±50% in the assumed μs′ value.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured changes in attenuation (ΔA) and phase (ΔΦ) as a function of fractional changes in dye absorption δμad (λ = 744 nm, mean dye concentration cd = 1.40 × 10−5 vol/vol). The lines give a first-order regression fit of the experimental data. (b) Correlation plot of ΔA and ΔΦ for the data shown in (a). The regression line has a slope of Qa = 2.47 OD/rad.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation of changes in attenuation and phase measured on a solid phantom for wavelengths between 753 and 761 nm. The solid line represents the first-order regression line of the experimental values (dots) with a shape of 2.23 OD/rad.

Equations (4)

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R ( r ) = z 0 ( 1 / ρ + μ eff ) exp ( μ eff ρ ) 2 π ρ 2 ,
t ( r ) = ρ 2 2 c ( D + ρ μ a D ) ,
A μ a = 3 2 ln 10 ρ 1 / ρ + μ eff ( 2 μ a + μ s ) ,
t μ a = 3 2 ( 1 / ρ + μ eff ) 2 c ( ρ 2 μ s μ a D 1 ) .

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