Abstract

An optically addressed spatial light modulator based on a single-crystal silicon Schottky diode array photoreceptor and nematic liquid crystals with a high photosensitivity (better than W/cm2) and input light intensity adaptation range (greater than 3 orders of magnitude) is demonstrated. This photosensitivity and intensity adaptation range is concurrent with a spatial resolution of 25 line pairs/mm, contrast ratios greater than 200:1, and response times less than 10 ms in a wide photosensing wavelength range of 400–1100 nm.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, S. H. Lee, Proc. IEEE 78, 826 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Sayyah, R. A. Forber, U. Efron, in Vol. XXVI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1995), p. 520.
  3. S. T. Wu, P. O. Braatz, C. W. Chen, U. Efron, J. D. Margerum, K. Sayyah, final contract Rep. N 62269-90-C-0235 (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, Calif., 1993).
  4. R. D. Sterling, R. D. Te Kolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, in Vol. XXI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1990), p. 327.
  5. K. Sayyah, M. S. Welkowsky, P. G. Reif, N. W. Goodwin, Appl. Opt. 28, 4748 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Sayyah, U. Efron, R. A. Forber, N. W. Goodwin, P. G. Reif, Proc. SPIE 1455, 249 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerk, T. Uchida, J. Duchene, in Vol. XX of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1989), p. 378.
  9. J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).
  10. K. Sayyah, “One dimensional equivalent circuit simulation of a photodiode-based spatial light modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (to be published).

1991

K. Sayyah, U. Efron, R. A. Forber, N. W. Goodwin, P. G. Reif, Proc. SPIE 1455, 249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, S. H. Lee, Proc. IEEE 78, 826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1975

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

Aizawa, M.

S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerk, T. Uchida, J. Duchene, in Vol. XX of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1989), p. 378.

Athale, R. A.

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, S. H. Lee, Proc. IEEE 78, 826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bleha, W. P.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

R. D. Sterling, R. D. Te Kolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, in Vol. XXI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1990), p. 327.

Borah, T. C.

R. D. Sterling, R. D. Te Kolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, in Vol. XXI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1990), p. 327.

Boswell, D.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

Braatz, P. O.

S. T. Wu, P. O. Braatz, C. W. Chen, U. Efron, J. D. Margerum, K. Sayyah, final contract Rep. N 62269-90-C-0235 (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, Calif., 1993).

Chen, C. W.

S. T. Wu, P. O. Braatz, C. W. Chen, U. Efron, J. D. Margerum, K. Sayyah, final contract Rep. N 62269-90-C-0235 (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, Calif., 1993).

Clerk, J. F.

S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerk, T. Uchida, J. Duchene, in Vol. XX of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1989), p. 378.

Duchene, J.

S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerk, T. Uchida, J. Duchene, in Vol. XX of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1989), p. 378.

Efron, U.

K. Sayyah, U. Efron, R. A. Forber, N. W. Goodwin, P. G. Reif, Proc. SPIE 1455, 249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sayyah, R. A. Forber, U. Efron, in Vol. XXVI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1995), p. 520.

S. T. Wu, P. O. Braatz, C. W. Chen, U. Efron, J. D. Margerum, K. Sayyah, final contract Rep. N 62269-90-C-0235 (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, Calif., 1993).

Forber, R. A.

K. Sayyah, U. Efron, R. A. Forber, N. W. Goodwin, P. G. Reif, Proc. SPIE 1455, 249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sayyah, R. A. Forber, U. Efron, in Vol. XXVI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1995), p. 520.

Fraas, L.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

Gomez, C. M.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, N. W.

K. Sayyah, U. Efron, R. A. Forber, N. W. Goodwin, P. G. Reif, Proc. SPIE 1455, 249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sayyah, M. S. Welkowsky, P. G. Reif, N. W. Goodwin, Appl. Opt. 28, 4748 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinberg, J.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

Haggerty, J. M.

R. D. Sterling, R. D. Te Kolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, in Vol. XXI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1990), p. 327.

Jacobson, A.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

Koboyashi, S.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, S. H. Lee, Proc. IEEE 78, 826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, H.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Margerum, J. D.

S. T. Wu, P. O. Braatz, C. W. Chen, U. Efron, J. D. Margerum, K. Sayyah, final contract Rep. N 62269-90-C-0235 (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, Calif., 1993).

Miller, L.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

Myer, G.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

Neff, J. A.

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, S. H. Lee, Proc. IEEE 78, 826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, F.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reif, P. G.

K. Sayyah, U. Efron, R. A. Forber, N. W. Goodwin, P. G. Reif, Proc. SPIE 1455, 249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sayyah, M. S. Welkowsky, P. G. Reif, N. W. Goodwin, Appl. Opt. 28, 4748 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, M.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sayyah, K.

K. Sayyah, U. Efron, R. A. Forber, N. W. Goodwin, P. G. Reif, Proc. SPIE 1455, 249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Sayyah, M. S. Welkowsky, P. G. Reif, N. W. Goodwin, Appl. Opt. 28, 4748 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, P. O. Braatz, C. W. Chen, U. Efron, J. D. Margerum, K. Sayyah, final contract Rep. N 62269-90-C-0235 (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, Calif., 1993).

K. Sayyah, “One dimensional equivalent circuit simulation of a photodiode-based spatial light modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (to be published).

K. Sayyah, R. A. Forber, U. Efron, in Vol. XXVI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1995), p. 520.

Sekine, H.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sterling, R. D.

R. D. Sterling, R. D. Te Kolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, in Vol. XXI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1990), p. 327.

Te Kolste, R. D.

R. D. Sterling, R. D. Te Kolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, in Vol. XXI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1990), p. 327.

Tsujikawa, S.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerk, T. Uchida, J. Duchene, in Vol. XX of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1989), p. 378.

Welkowsky, M. S.

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, P. O. Braatz, C. W. Chen, U. Efron, J. D. Margerum, K. Sayyah, final contract Rep. N 62269-90-C-0235 (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, Calif., 1993).

Yamauchi, S.

S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerk, T. Uchida, J. Duchene, in Vol. XX of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1989), p. 378.

Yamazaki, T.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

C. M. Gomez, S. Tsujikawa, H. Maeda, H. Sekine, T. Yamazaki, M. Sakamoto, F. Okumura, S. Koboyashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. Grinberg, A. Jacobson, W. P. Bleha, L. Miller, L. Fraas, D. Boswell, G. Myer, Opt. Eng. 14, 217 (1975).

Proc. IEEE

J. A. Neff, R. A. Athale, S. H. Lee, Proc. IEEE 78, 826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

K. Sayyah, U. Efron, R. A. Forber, N. W. Goodwin, P. G. Reif, Proc. SPIE 1455, 249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Sayyah, R. A. Forber, U. Efron, in Vol. XXVI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1995), p. 520.

S. T. Wu, P. O. Braatz, C. W. Chen, U. Efron, J. D. Margerum, K. Sayyah, final contract Rep. N 62269-90-C-0235 (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, Calif., 1993).

R. D. Sterling, R. D. Te Kolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C. Borah, W. P. Bleha, in Vol. XXI of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1990), p. 327.

K. Sayyah, “One dimensional equivalent circuit simulation of a photodiode-based spatial light modulator,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (to be published).

S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerk, T. Uchida, J. Duchene, in Vol. XX of SID Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, Playa del Rey, Calif., 1989), p. 378.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the Schottky diode Si LCLV. Also shown is the applied bias waveform, where VF and VR are the forward- and the reverse-bias voltages and TF and TR are the forward- and reverse-bias periods, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Input-output optical characteristics of Schottky diode Si LCLV's with homeotropic and twisted nematic LC configurations, demonstrating input light sensitivities of better than 1 μW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of device photosensitivity on bias waveform frequency (fB) and duty cycle (TR/T).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated dependence of the dark-state photodiode voltage waveform on the Schottky diode-leakage current for a bias frequency of 100 Hz and a duty cycle (TR/T) of 0.9.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the projected image of the U.S. Air Force resolution target at a bias frequency of 50 Hz, indicating a limiting resolution of ∼25 line pairs/mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Modulation-transfer function (MTF) of the Schottky diode Si LCLV at a bias frequency of 10 kHz. Shown in the inset is the modulation depth at 16 line pairs (lp)/ mm as a function of bias frequency.

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