Abstract

We report the design, construction, and parameters of a detector package based on a germanium avalanche photodiode operated in the Geiger mode cooled to 77 K. The new design of the active quenching circuit, proper diode structure, and cryogenic cooling setup permitted us to increase the detector's active area to 0.1-mm diameter while maintaining an acceptable dark-count rate, timing resolution, and photon-counting sensitivity at 1.54 μm. The active-area size and the compact design of the detector package permitted its application in satellite laser ranging at 0.532- and 1.543-μm wavelengths, yielding subcentimeter ranging precision.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 630 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Sopko, J. Ricka, M. Hoebel, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 126, 147 (1991).
  3. B. Sopko, J. Pavlu, I. Prochazka, I. Macha, “Detection of near IR radiation by SiGe material,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Solid State Device Research Conference, W. Ecleston, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1990), pp. 413–416.
  4. A. Lacaita, P. A. Francese, F. Zappa, S. Cova, Appl. Opt. 33, 6902 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. C. M. Owens, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, D. Knight, P. D. Townsted, Appl. Opt. 33, 6895 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.
  7. H. Kunimori, B. Greene, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, “Centimeter eyesafe satellite laser ranging using Raman shifted Nd:YAG laser and germanium photon counter,” (to be published).

1994 (2)

1991 (1)

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Sopko, J. Ricka, M. Hoebel, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 126, 147 (1991).

1983 (1)

S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 630 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

Francese, P. A.

Greene, B.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, “Centimeter eyesafe satellite laser ranging using Raman shifted Nd:YAG laser and germanium photon counter,” (to be published).

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.

Guilfoyle, J.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.

Hamal, K.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Sopko, J. Ricka, M. Hoebel, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 126, 147 (1991).

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, “Centimeter eyesafe satellite laser ranging using Raman shifted Nd:YAG laser and germanium photon counter,” (to be published).

Hoebel, M.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Sopko, J. Ricka, M. Hoebel, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 126, 147 (1991).

Kirchner, G.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.

Knight, D.

Koidl, F.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.

Kunimori, H.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, “Centimeter eyesafe satellite laser ranging using Raman shifted Nd:YAG laser and germanium photon counter,” (to be published).

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.

Lacaita, A.

Macha, I.

B. Sopko, J. Pavlu, I. Prochazka, I. Macha, “Detection of near IR radiation by SiGe material,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Solid State Device Research Conference, W. Ecleston, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1990), pp. 413–416.

Owens, P. C. M.

Pavlu, J.

B. Sopko, J. Pavlu, I. Prochazka, I. Macha, “Detection of near IR radiation by SiGe material,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Solid State Device Research Conference, W. Ecleston, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1990), pp. 413–416.

Prochazka, I.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Sopko, J. Ricka, M. Hoebel, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 126, 147 (1991).

B. Sopko, J. Pavlu, I. Prochazka, I. Macha, “Detection of near IR radiation by SiGe material,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Solid State Device Research Conference, W. Ecleston, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1990), pp. 413–416.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, “Centimeter eyesafe satellite laser ranging using Raman shifted Nd:YAG laser and germanium photon counter,” (to be published).

Rarity, J. G.

Ricka, J.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Sopko, J. Ricka, M. Hoebel, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 126, 147 (1991).

Sopko, B.

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Sopko, J. Ricka, M. Hoebel, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 126, 147 (1991).

B. Sopko, J. Pavlu, I. Prochazka, I. Macha, “Detection of near IR radiation by SiGe material,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Solid State Device Research Conference, W. Ecleston, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1990), pp. 413–416.

Tapster, P. R.

Townsted, P. D.

Zappa, F.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Cova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 630 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

I. Prochazka, K. Hamal, B. Sopko, J. Ricka, M. Hoebel, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 126, 147 (1991).

Other (3)

B. Sopko, J. Pavlu, I. Prochazka, I. Macha, “Detection of near IR radiation by SiGe material,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Solid State Device Research Conference, W. Ecleston, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1990), pp. 413–416.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, J. Guilfoyle, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, “Subcentimeter eyesafe ranging,” in Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (1995), pp. 17– 18.

H. Kunimori, B. Greene, K. Hamal, I. Prochazka, “Centimeter eyesafe satellite laser ranging using Raman shifted Nd:YAG laser and germanium photon counter,” (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral responsivity of germanium- and silicon based APD's. (a) Solid curves, germanium APD data from the EG&G Judson infrared detector data sheet (EG&G, Montgomeryville, Pa., 1994); dashed line, extrapolation toward shorter wavelengths. (b) Silicon APD data from Ref. 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveform of a 32-ps optical pulse from a laser diode. The APD was biased 1.7 V above the break voltage; the timing electronics contribution FWHM was 30 ps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Timing resolution of the germanium photon counter versus bias above the breakdown voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effective dark-count rate of the detector package versus APD bias above the break voltage. The APD was operated in an active quenching mode gated with a 10-Hz repetition rate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-photon laser ranging to the ground target at 1.54-μm wavelength. The APD was biased 2 V above the breakdown voltage, the laser FWHM was 30 ps, and the ranging electronics contribution was 70 ps FWHM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single-photon laser ranging to the Ajisai satellite at 1.54 μm. The APD was biased 0.6 V above the breakdown voltage, and the satellite distance was 2000 km. The returned signal is spread in time by the satellite geometry.

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