Abstract

An improved description of the usual field-assisted ion-exchange processes for fabricating planar surface optical waveguides in glass substrates is presented that takes into account both increased resistivity because of incoming ions and the substrate's finite thickness. Time dependencies of the ion flux density, effective depth, and profile shape are predicted.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Abou-el-Leil, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 62, 390 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. L. Yip, P. C. Noutsios, K. Kishioka, Opt. Lett. 15, 789 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Prieto, R. Srivastava, J. Linares, C. Montero, Opt. Mater. 5, 145 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Honkanen, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics,S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 3.
  7. S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 643 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. E. Shaisha, A. R. Cooper, J. Am, Ceram. Soc. 64, 278 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Albert, in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 2.

1996

X. Prieto, R. Srivastava, J. Linares, C. Montero, Opt. Mater. 5, 145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

E. E. Shaisha, A. R. Cooper, J. Am, Ceram. Soc. 64, 278 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

M. Abou-el-Leil, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 62, 390 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abou-el-Leil, M.

M. Abou-el-Leil, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 62, 390 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 2.

Am, J.

E. E. Shaisha, A. R. Cooper, J. Am, Ceram. Soc. 64, 278 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, A. R.

E. E. Shaisha, A. R. Cooper, J. Am, Ceram. Soc. 64, 278 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Abou-el-Leil, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 62, 390 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics,S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 3.

Kishioka, K.

Lilienhof, H. J.

H. J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Linares, J.

X. Prieto, R. Srivastava, J. Linares, C. Montero, Opt. Mater. 5, 145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Montero, C.

X. Prieto, R. Srivastava, J. Linares, C. Montero, Opt. Mater. 5, 145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noutsios, P. C.

Pantschew, B.

H. J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, X.

X. Prieto, R. Srivastava, J. Linares, C. Montero, Opt. Mater. 5, 145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, D.

H. J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shaisha, E. E.

E. E. Shaisha, A. R. Cooper, J. Am, Ceram. Soc. 64, 278 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

X. Prieto, R. Srivastava, J. Linares, C. Montero, Opt. Mater. 5, 145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tervonen, A.

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

H. J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yip, G. L.

Ceram. Soc.

E. E. Shaisha, A. R. Cooper, J. Am, Ceram. Soc. 64, 278 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

M. Abou-el-Leil, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 62, 390 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

X. Prieto, R. Srivastava, J. Linares, C. Montero, Opt. Mater. 5, 145 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Honkanen, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics,S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 3.

J. Albert, in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, London, 1992), Chap. 2.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the field-assisted diffusion system. The diffusion front is indicated by the dashed line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thickness d1 of region A and ion-flux density j versus time.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ A C A E 1 + μ B C B E 1 = μ B C B 0 E 2 ( = j ) ,
d 1 E 1 + d 2 E 2 = V ,
d ˙ 1 = μ A E 1 ,
d 1 + d 2 = a ,
d ˙ 1 = μ A V a ( a d 1 ) α N A ( = 1 α 1 α N A j C B 0 ) ,
d 1 ( t ) = ( 1 α N A 1 ) × { [ 2 α N A ( 1 α N A ) 2 μ A V t + a 2 ] 1 / 2 a } .
j ( t ) = μ B C B 0 V [ 2 α N A ( 1 α N A ) 2 μ A V t + a 2 ] 1 / 2 .
d 1 ( t ) 1 1 α N A μ A V a t ,
j μ B C B 0 V a ,
d 1 ( t ) 2 μ A V t .
N A t + 1 α ( 1 α N A ) 2 j C B 0 N A x = x ( D A 1 α N A N A x ) .
x = x 1 α ( 1 α N A ) C B 0 0 t j ( u ) d u , t = t .
ξ = j ( t ) D A C B 0 x , τ = 1 D A ( C B 0 ) 2 0 t j 2 ( u ) d u ,
N A τ + [ D A ( C B 0 ) 2 j 3 d j d t ξ + 1 α ( 1 α N A ) 2 1 α 1 α N A ] × N A ξ = ξ ( D A 1 α N A N A ξ ) .
k T e V 1 α 1 α N A α N A ξ 1 ,
N A ξ | N A = N A = 0 , N A ξ = 0 = N A 2
N A = N A 1 + exp ( α N A 1 α 1 α N A ) .
| α N A 1 α 1 α N A ξ | < 4.6 ,
4.6 k T e V 1 .

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