Abstract

We have constructed two highly stable and reproducible 87Rb D2-saturated-absorption spectrometers at 780 nm, using dither/third-harmonic lock-in detection and radio-frequency sideband techniques, respectively. We achieved ±3-kHz reproducibility and agreement between these two independent systems. Heterodyne measurements of the hyperfine splittings of the 5P3/2 state give its magnetic dipole (A) and electric quadrupole (B) hyperfine constants with a 10-fold reduction in uncertainty.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 53, 142 ( 1991); Proc. SPIE 1837, 262 ( 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Schmidt, K.-M. Knaak, R. Wynands, D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 59, 167 ( 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Grimm, J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B 49, 179 ( 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Chartier, S. Picard-Fredin, A. Chartier, CCDM/92-2/Rapport BIPM 92/4.
  6. J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 ( 1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Wahlquist, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708 ( 1961).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 ( 1977), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  9. All errors are quoted on a 1σ basis.
  10. J. R. Beacham, K. L. Andrews, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 231 ( 1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. A. Schüssler, Z. Phys. 182, 289 ( 1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Belin, S. Svanberg, Phys. Scr. 4, 269 ( 1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 1643 ( 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, S. Waltman, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

1995 (1)

P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

O. Schmidt, K.-M. Knaak, R. Wynands, D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 59, 167 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 1643 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 53, 142 ( 1991); Proc. SPIE 1837, 262 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Grimm, J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B 49, 179 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 ( 1977), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

1965 (1)

H. A. Schüssler, Z. Phys. 182, 289 ( 1965).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

H. Wahlquist, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708 ( 1961).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, K. L.

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 ( 1977), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 53, 142 ( 1991); Proc. SPIE 1837, 262 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Beacham, J. R.

Belin, G.

G. Belin, S. Svanberg, Phys. Scr. 4, 269 ( 1971).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 1643 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, A.

J. M. Chartier, S. Picard-Fredin, A. Chartier, CCDM/92-2/Rapport BIPM 92/4.

Chartier, J. M.

J. M. Chartier, S. Picard-Fredin, A. Chartier, CCDM/92-2/Rapport BIPM 92/4.

Eickhoff, M.

P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 1643 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 53, 142 ( 1991); Proc. SPIE 1837, 262 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

R. Grimm, J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B 49, 179 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, S. Waltman, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Hollberg, L.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 ( 1977), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P.

P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, S. Waltman, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Knaak, K.-M.

O. Schmidt, K.-M. Knaak, R. Wynands, D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 59, 167 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L-S.

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, S. Waltman, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Meschede, D.

O. Schmidt, K.-M. Knaak, R. Wynands, D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 59, 167 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

Millerioux, Y.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 1643 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

R. Grimm, J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B 49, 179 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

Nez, F.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 1643 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

Picard-Fredin, S.

J. M. Chartier, S. Picard-Fredin, A. Chartier, CCDM/92-2/Rapport BIPM 92/4.

Robinson, H. G.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 53, 142 ( 1991); Proc. SPIE 1837, 262 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O.

O. Schmidt, K.-M. Knaak, R. Wynands, D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 59, 167 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

Schüssler, H. A.

H. A. Schüssler, Z. Phys. 182, 289 ( 1965).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

G. Belin, S. Svanberg, Phys. Scr. 4, 269 ( 1971).
[CrossRef]

Swartz, S.

P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, S. Waltman, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Violino, P.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 ( 1977), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wahlquist, H.

H. Wahlquist, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708 ( 1961).
[CrossRef]

Waltman, S.

P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, S. Waltman, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Wynands, R.

O. Schmidt, K.-M. Knaak, R. Wynands, D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 59, 167 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, S. Waltman, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Appl. Phys. B (3)

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Phys. B 53, 142 ( 1991); Proc. SPIE 1837, 262 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

O. Schmidt, K.-M. Knaak, R. Wynands, D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 59, 167 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B 49, 179 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 ( 1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

P. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Wahlquist, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708 ( 1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, Y. Millerioux, Opt. Commun. 102, 1643 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

G. Belin, S. Svanberg, Phys. Scr. 4, 269 ( 1971).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 ( 1977), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

H. A. Schüssler, Z. Phys. 182, 289 ( 1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, S. Waltman, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

All errors are quoted on a 1σ basis.

J. M. Chartier, S. Picard-Fredin, A. Chartier, CCDM/92-2/Rapport BIPM 92/4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for our Rb D2 spectrometers. Both use an AOM to chop and frequency offset the saturating beam. The third-harmonic dither lock-in detection approach is shown in (a), and the FM technique is shown in (b). PLL’s, phase-locked loops.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency scan over the hyperfine components in 87Rb in both spectrometers. Theoretical fits for the df-crossover and their residuals (10×) are shown. Assignment of the components is indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time record of the beat frequency between the two spectrometer-stabilized laser systems. Allan variance is calculated from these data. The offset of 5 kHz between the two systems has been suppressed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured values of the hyperfine splittings of the 87Rb 5P3/2 state; (b) comparison between A and B values determined here and some previous results. The key to references is as follows: a, Ref. 10; b, Ref. 11; c, Ref. 12; d, Ref. 8; e, Ref. 2. The Schüssler measurement of the constant A is also the recommended value given in Ref. 8.

Equations (2)

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Signal ( 3 ω ) = Sign ( H δ ) ( 2 H ω ) 2 [ 2 γ μ 2 μ 2 ( μ γ ) 2 2 γ μ ( μ 1 μ 2 μ ) ] ,
γ = 1 + β 2 + α 2 , μ = γ + γ 2 4 α 2 ,

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