Abstract

We report on cell damage of single cells confined in continuous-wave (cw), near-infrared (NIR) multimode optical traps as a result of multiphoton absorption phenomena. Trapping beams at NIR wavelengths less than 800 nm are capable of damaging cells through a two-photon absorption process. Cell damage is more pronounced in multimode cw traps compared with single-frequency true cw NIR traps because of transient power enhancement by longitudinal mode beating. Partial mode locking in tunable cw Ti:sapphire lasers used as trapping beam sources can produce unstable subnanosecond pulses at certain wavelengths that amplify multiphoton absorption effects significantly. We recommend the use of single-frequency long-wavelength NIR trapping beams for optical micromanipulation of vital cells.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. As described in the technical specifications for the Coherent Model 899-01 Ti:sapphire laser, Coherent, Inc., Laser Group, Santa Clara, California.
  14. Molecular Probes, 100-nM SYBR 14 with intracellular fluorescence maximum at 515 nm; 12-μM propidium iodide with fluorescence maximum in the red spectral range.
  15. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1995

K. KÖnig, H. Liang, M. W. Berns, B. J. Tromberg, Nature (London) 377, 20 (1995).

1994

K. Schütze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, Fertil. Steril. 61, 783 (1994).
[PubMed]

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. M. Westphal, I. El Dansasouri, S. Shimizu, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 8, 1083 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, L. H. Liaw, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 6, 1011 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990

T. G. Burchuladze, E. G. Sideris, G. I. Fraikin, Biofizika 35, 722 (1990).
[PubMed]

R. M. Tyrrell, S. M. Keyse, J. Photochem, Photobiol. B Biol. 4, 349 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

M. L. Cunningham, J. S. Johnson, S. M. Giovanazzi, M. J. Peak, Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

1970

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Asch, R. H.

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, L. H. Liaw, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 6, 1011 (1991).
[PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

K. Schütze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, Fertil. Steril. 61, 783 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

K. KÖnig, H. Liang, M. W. Berns, B. J. Tromberg, Nature (London) 377, 20 (1995).

L. M. Westphal, I. El Dansasouri, S. Shimizu, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 8, 1083 (1993).
[PubMed]

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, L. H. Liaw, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 6, 1011 (1991).
[PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bonder, E. M.

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

Burchuladze, T. G.

T. G. Burchuladze, E. G. Sideris, G. I. Fraikin, Biofizika 35, 722 (1990).
[PubMed]

Chu, S.

Clement-Sengewald, A.

K. Schütze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, Fertil. Steril. 61, 783 (1994).
[PubMed]

Colon, J. M.

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

Cunningham, M. L.

M. L. Cunningham, J. S. Johnson, S. M. Giovanazzi, M. J. Peak, Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Dansasouri, I.

L. M. Westphal, I. El Dansasouri, S. Shimizu, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 8, 1083 (1993).
[PubMed]

Fraikin, G. I.

T. G. Burchuladze, E. G. Sideris, G. I. Fraikin, Biofizika 35, 722 (1990).
[PubMed]

Giovanazzi, S. M.

M. L. Cunningham, J. S. Johnson, S. M. Giovanazzi, M. J. Peak, Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Hell, S.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. S.

M. L. Cunningham, J. S. Johnson, S. M. Giovanazzi, M. J. Peak, Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S. M.

S. M. Kennedy, F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 58, 2643 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Keyse, S. M.

R. M. Tyrrell, S. M. Keyse, J. Photochem, Photobiol. B Biol. 4, 349 (1990).
[CrossRef]

KÖnig, K.

K. KÖnig, H. Liang, M. W. Berns, B. J. Tromberg, Nature (London) 377, 20 (1995).

Liang, H.

K. KÖnig, H. Liang, M. W. Berns, B. J. Tromberg, Nature (London) 377, 20 (1995).

Liaw, L. H.

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, L. H. Liaw, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 6, 1011 (1991).
[PubMed]

Lindek, S.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, F. E.

S. M. Kennedy, F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 58, 2643 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McGovern, P. G.

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

Peak, M. J.

M. L. Cunningham, J. S. Johnson, S. M. Giovanazzi, M. J. Peak, Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem, J.

R. M. Tyrrell, S. M. Keyse, J. Photochem, Photobiol. B Biol. 4, 349 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pick, R.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Ritter, G.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, N.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sarosi, P.

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

Schütze, K.

K. Schütze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, Fertil. Steril. 61, 783 (1994).
[PubMed]

Shimizu, S.

L. M. Westphal, I. El Dansasouri, S. Shimizu, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 8, 1083 (1993).
[PubMed]

Sideris, E. G.

T. G. Burchuladze, E. G. Sideris, G. I. Fraikin, Biofizika 35, 722 (1990).
[PubMed]

Skurnick, J.

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Storz, C.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stricker, R.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadir, Y.

L. M. Westphal, I. El Dansasouri, S. Shimizu, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 8, 1083 (1993).
[PubMed]

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, L. H. Liaw, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 6, 1011 (1991).
[PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

K. KÖnig, H. Liang, M. W. Berns, B. J. Tromberg, Nature (London) 377, 20 (1995).

Tyrrell, R. M.

R. M. Tyrrell, S. M. Keyse, J. Photochem, Photobiol. B Biol. 4, 349 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vafa, O.

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, L. H. Liaw, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 6, 1011 (1991).
[PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, G.

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

Westphal, L. M.

L. M. Westphal, I. El Dansasouri, S. Shimizu, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 8, 1083 (1993).
[PubMed]

Wright, W. H.

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, L. H. Liaw, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 6, 1011 (1991).
[PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

S. M. Kennedy, F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 58, 2643 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biofizika

T. G. Burchuladze, E. G. Sideris, G. I. Fraikin, Biofizika 35, 722 (1990).
[PubMed]

Fertil. Steril.

J. M. Colon, P. Sarosi, P. G. McGovern, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. Skurnick, G. Weiss, E. M. Bonder, Fertil. Steril. 57, 695 (1992).
[PubMed]

K. Schütze, A. Clement-Sengewald, A. Ashkin, Fertil. Steril. 61, 783 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hum. Reprod.

L. M. Westphal, I. El Dansasouri, S. Shimizu, Y. Tadir, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 8, 1083 (1993).
[PubMed]

Y. Tadir, W. H. Wright, O. Vafa, L. H. Liaw, R. H. Asch, M. W. Berns, Hum. Reprod. 6, 1011 (1991).
[PubMed]

Nature (London)

K. KÖnig, H. Liang, M. W. Berns, B. J. Tromberg, Nature (London) 377, 20 (1995).

Opt. Commun.

E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, N. Salmon, Opt. Commun. 104, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Photobiol. B Biol.

R. M. Tyrrell, S. M. Keyse, J. Photochem, Photobiol. B Biol. 4, 349 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

M. L. Cunningham, J. S. Johnson, S. M. Giovanazzi, M. J. Peak, Photochem. Photobiol. 42, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

As described in the technical specifications for the Coherent Model 899-01 Ti:sapphire laser, Coherent, Inc., Laser Group, Santa Clara, California.

Molecular Probes, 100-nM SYBR 14 with intracellular fluorescence maximum at 515 nm; 12-μM propidium iodide with fluorescence maximum in the red spectral range.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Onset of intracellular propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence (cell death) in optically trapped spermatozoa (n = 20, 70 mW) in the case of multimode cw traps. The maximum trapping period was chosen to be 600 s. No cell survived in the 750-, 760-, and 770-nm traps. A time of 600 s for the onset of propidium iodide fluorescence was used for cells unaffected during trapping (all cells in 800-nm traps and some cells in 780-nm traps).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Oscilloscope recording of Ti:sapphire laser output made with a 1-GHz detector. The presence of variable-amplitude, subnanosecond pulses at approximately 180 and 360 MHz is shown. The traces at 760 and 800 nm are taken with the same gain. Amplitude differences of a factor of 3 result in a factor-of-9 difference in two-photon effects because of the squared dependence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cloning efficiency versus exposure time for CHO cells for multimode cw beams and single-frequency beams (760 nm, 88 mW).

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