Abstract

We report observation of coherent transient amplification that is due to free-induction decay and optical nutation in inhomogeneously broadened rubidium atoms by a sudden switch of diode-laser frequency. An amplification coefficient of 2.2 × 10−2 cm−1 is observed when the diode-laser frequency, initially tuned to the blue side of the Doppler-broadened absorption profile, is switched to be out of resonance by application of a step-function pulsed injection current. The transition from free-induction decay to optical nutation is observed and discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, revised ed. (Academic, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, p. 216, and references therein.
  2. L. Allen, J. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987), Chap. 3, p. 67.
  3. R. G. Brewer, R. L. Schoemaker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 631 (1971); G. B. Hocker, C. L. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 591 (1968); R. G. Brewer, R. L. Shoemaker, Phys. Rev. A 6, 2001 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. Brewer, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 959 (1976); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 862 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Z. Genack, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1463 (1978); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2449 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582 (1982); S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18961 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453 (1991); D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C.-J. Wei, N. B. Manson, J. P. D. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1083 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y.-Q. Li, M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 20, 1491 (1995).
  10. E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

C.-J. Wei, N. B. Manson, J. P. D. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Q. Li, M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 20, 1491 (1995).

1993

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453 (1991); D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582 (1982); S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

A. Z. Genack, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1463 (1978); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2449 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

R. G. Brewer, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 959 (1976); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 862 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. G. Brewer, R. L. Schoemaker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 631 (1971); G. B. Hocker, C. L. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 591 (1968); R. G. Brewer, R. L. Shoemaker, Phys. Rev. A 6, 2001 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, J. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987), Chap. 3, p. 67.

Brewer, R. G.

A. Z. Genack, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1463 (1978); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2449 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Brewer, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 959 (1976); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 862 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Brewer, R. L. Schoemaker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 631 (1971); G. B. Hocker, C. L. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 591 (1968); R. G. Brewer, R. L. Shoemaker, Phys. Rev. A 6, 2001 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J.

L. Allen, J. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987), Chap. 3, p. 67.

Fry, E.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genack, A. Z.

A. Z. Genack, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1463 (1978); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2449 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Brewer, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 959 (1976); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 862 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582 (1982); S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582 (1982); S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582 (1982); S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, revised ed. (Academic, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, p. 216, and references therein.

Li, X.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Li, M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 20, 1491 (1995).

Manson, N. B.

C.-J. Wei, N. B. Manson, J. P. D. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. P. D.

C.-J. Wei, N. B. Manson, J. P. D. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsui, T.

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453 (1991); D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikonov, D.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padmabandu, G. G.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoemaker, R. L.

R. G. Brewer, R. L. Schoemaker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 631 (1971); G. B. Hocker, C. L. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 591 (1968); R. G. Brewer, R. L. Shoemaker, Phys. Rev. A 6, 2001 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schully, M. O.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. V.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, U.

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453 (1991); D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, C.-J.

C.-J. Wei, N. B. Manson, J. P. D. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, S. R.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

Y.-Q. Li, M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 20, 1491 (1995).

Yabuzaki, T.

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453 (1991); D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582 (1982); S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.-Y.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582 (1982); S. Saito, O. Nilsson, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Y.-Q. Li, M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 20, 1491 (1995).

Phys. Rev. A

A. Z. Genack, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1463 (1978); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2449 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Schully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, U. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453 (1991); D. H. McIntyre, C. E. Fairchild, J. Cooper, R. Walser, Opt. Lett. 18, 1816 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-J. Wei, N. B. Manson, J. P. D. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1083 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Brewer, R. L. Schoemaker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 631 (1971); G. B. Hocker, C. L. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 591 (1968); R. G. Brewer, R. L. Shoemaker, Phys. Rev. A 6, 2001 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Brewer, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 959 (1976); R. G. DeVoe, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 862 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, revised ed. (Academic, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, p. 216, and references therein.

L. Allen, J. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987), Chap. 3, p. 67.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement. The frequency of the diode laser is switched by application of a negative pulsed injection current: LD, laser diode; FI, Faraday isolator; PG, pulse generator; AP, aperture; APD, avalanche photodiode; Osc., sampling oscilloscope. Inset: laser frequency switching related to atomic transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitted intensity of the laser beam versus time when the diode-laser frequency is switched with a frequency shift of δ = 2π × 300 MHz and a detuning of Δ1 = +2π × 200 MHz from the transition of the 87Rb D1 line (5S1/2, F = 1−5P1/2, F = 2). The intensity of the laser beam is ~0.1 mW/cm2. Curve a is the zero-absorption level when the laser frequency is tuned far off resonance. Transient gain (16.5%) without inversion is observed in curve b.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized intensity transmission of the 87Rb D1 line (5S1/2, F = 1−5P1/2, F = 2) versus time when the laser frequency is switched from an initial detuning of Δ1 = 2π × 200 MHz for the pulsed injection currents shown. Transient gain is observed when the intensity transmission is larger than unity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transition from FID to optical nutation. The transmitted intensity is measured when the laser beam with a fixed pulsed injection current of 3.0 mA is initially tuned to the frequencies shown.

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