Abstract

Completely (001) textured LiNbO3 films have been fabricated upon thermally oxidized SiO2/Si substrates by in situ application of a low electric field in a pulsed-laser deposition system. The biased voltage was 70–75 V on parallel electrodes separated by 7.0 mm. Li-enriched crystal and ceramic targets were used. The achieved films were nearly stoichiometric and have smooth surfaces. Waveguiding performance of the films was demonstrated by a prism-coupling method. The refractive indices were calculated on the basis of isotropic and anisotropic waveguide theories. A low-light propagation loss of 1.9 dB/cm in the films was achieved. It is expected that the films can be used in integrated-optical devices that require d33, γ33, 33, and n33 elements.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

1996

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, D. Feng, Solid State Commun. 97, 481 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. M. Mir, J. A. Agostinelli, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. van de Riet, U. K. P. Biermann, Thin Solid Films 241, 134 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

Y. Shibata, K. Kaya, K. Akashi, M. Kanai, T. Kawai, S. Kawai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Ogale, R. N. Dikshit, S. J. Dikshit, S. M. Kanetkar, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5718 (1992); T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. S. Weis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1979

S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4599 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972

S. Yamanoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

Agostinelli, J. A.

J. M. Mir, J. A. Agostinelli, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akashi, K.

Y. Shibata, K. Kaya, K. Akashi, M. Kanai, T. Kawai, S. Kawai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, U. K. P.

E. van de Riet, U. K. P. Biermann, Thin Solid Films 241, 134 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dikshit, R. N.

S. B. Ogale, R. N. Dikshit, S. J. Dikshit, S. M. Kanetkar, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5718 (1992); T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dikshit, S. J.

S. B. Ogale, R. N. Dikshit, S. J. Dikshit, S. M. Kanetkar, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5718 (1992); T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, D. Feng, Solid State Commun. 97, 481 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

R. S. Weis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. S.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, D. Feng, Solid State Commun. 97, 481 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. J.

Kanai, M.

Y. Shibata, K. Kaya, K. Akashi, M. Kanai, T. Kawai, S. Kawai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kanetkar, S. M.

S. B. Ogale, R. N. Dikshit, S. J. Dikshit, S. M. Kanetkar, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5718 (1992); T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, S.

Y. Shibata, K. Kaya, K. Akashi, M. Kanai, T. Kawai, S. Kawai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, T.

Y. Shibata, K. Kaya, K. Akashi, M. Kanai, T. Kawai, S. Kawai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaya, K.

Y. Shibata, K. Kaya, K. Akashi, M. Kanai, T. Kawai, S. Kawai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koyamada, Y.

S. Yamanoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. S.

Liu, Z. G.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, D. Feng, Solid State Commun. 97, 481 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Makimoto, T.

S. Yamanoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mir, J. M.

J. M. Mir, J. A. Agostinelli, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4599 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ogale, S. B.

S. B. Ogale, R. N. Dikshit, S. J. Dikshit, S. M. Kanetkar, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5718 (1992); T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Partlow, W. D.

Rabson, T. A.

Shibata, Y.

Y. Shibata, K. Kaya, K. Akashi, M. Kanai, T. Kawai, S. Kawai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sriram, S.

Tien, P. K.

van de Riet, E.

E. van de Riet, U. K. P. Biermann, Thin Solid Films 241, 134 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weis, R. S.

R. S. Weis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yamanoto, S.

S. Yamanoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

R. S. Weis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Shibata, K. Kaya, K. Akashi, M. Kanai, T. Kawai, S. Kawai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1000 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. B. Ogale, R. N. Dikshit, S. J. Dikshit, S. M. Kanetkar, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5718 (1992); T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamanoto, Y. Koyamada, T. Makimoto, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5090 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4599 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

J. M. Mir, J. A. Agostinelli, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Solid State Commun.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, D. Feng, Solid State Commun. 97, 481 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

E. van de Riet, U. K. P. Biermann, Thin Solid Films 241, 134 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, PDF 20-631.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

X-ray diffraction θ–2θ scan of LN film upon SiO2/Si without application of an electric field. The film was polycrystalline.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of texture degree f of (001) orientation versus the biased voltage Vb. At Vb = 70–75 V, completely (001) textured LN films were obtained.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray diffraction θ–2θ scan of LN film upon SiO2/Si deposited by in situ application of a low electric field at the biased voltage of Vb = 75 V. Only the (006) peak is present.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface morphology of LN films deposited in the electric field at (a) Vb = 0 and (b) 75 V with the Li-enriched crystal target.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Propagation attenuation of LN waveguide films upon SiO2/Si and their propagation losses for the TE0 mode. Samples 1 and 2 were (001) textured and polycrystalline films, respectively, with a crystal target. Samples 3 and 4 were (001) textured and polycrystalline films, respectively, with a ceramic target.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 PLD Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive Indices of LiNbO3 Films Calculated from the Measured Coupling Angles of TE0, TE1 and TM0, TM1

Equations (1)

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f = ( I I 0 ) / ( 1 I 0 ) ,

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