Abstract

We have observed enhanced optical limiting behavior in solutions of a derivatized fullerene (phenyl-C61-butyric acid cholesteryl ester) from 532 to 700 nm. Transient absorption measurements determined the spectral and temporal regions of interest for optical limiting in C60 and in C60 derivatives that are due to a reverse saturable absorption mechanism and predicted enhanced limiting at longer wavelengths. Intensity-dependent transmission measurements made at several wavelengths confirmed these results. The increased solubility and the broadened ground-state absorption of the functionalized C60 make it suitable for use as an optical limiter in the red and the near infrared.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1995

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hummelen, B. W. Knight, F. Lepec, F. Wudl, J. Yao, C. L. Wilkins, J. Org. Chem. 60, 532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

1994

J. R. Heflin, S. Wang, D. Marciu, J. W. Freeland, B. Jenkins, Polym. Prepr. 35, 238 (1994).

J. Perry, K. Mansour, S. Marder, K. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Miles, Appl. Opt. 33, 6965 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. McBranch, B. R. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. M. Robinson, S. P. Love, Proc. SPIE 2284, 15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Tutt, T. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, L. Tutt, M. Klein, T. Dougherty, W. Elias, Opt. Lett. 18, 334 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. McLean, R. Sutherland, M. Brant, D. Brandelik, P. Fleitz, T. Pottenger, Opt. Lett. 18, 858 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shirk, R. Pong, F. Bartoli, A. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Tutt, A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, D.

Bartoli, F.

J. Shirk, R. Pong, F. Bartoli, A. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bentivegna, F.

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T.

L. Tutt, T. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J.-P.

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

Bozio, R.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brandelik, D.

Brant, M.

Brun, A.

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brusatin, G.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chaput, F.

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Choong, I.

Dougherty, T.

Dresselhaus, G.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, M.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, D.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eklund, P.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Elias, W.

Fleitz, P.

Freeland, J. W.

J. R. Heflin, S. Wang, D. Marciu, J. W. Freeland, B. Jenkins, Polym. Prepr. 35, 238 (1994).

Georges, P.

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guglielmi, M.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

J. R. Heflin, S. Wang, D. Marciu, J. W. Freeland, B. Jenkins, Polym. Prepr. 35, 238 (1994).

Holden, J.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

Hummelen, J. C.

J. C. Hummelen, B. W. Knight, F. Lepec, F. Wudl, J. Yao, C. L. Wilkins, J. Org. Chem. 60, 532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, P.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, B.

J. R. Heflin, S. Wang, D. Marciu, J. W. Freeland, B. Jenkins, Polym. Prepr. 35, 238 (1994).

Klein, M.

Klimov, V.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

Knight, B. W.

J. C. Hummelen, B. W. Knight, F. Lepec, F. Wudl, J. Yao, C. L. Wilkins, J. Org. Chem. 60, 532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koskelo, A.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

D. McBranch, B. R. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. M. Robinson, S. P. Love, Proc. SPIE 2284, 15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kost, A.

Lepec, F.

J. C. Hummelen, B. W. Knight, F. Lepec, F. Wudl, J. Yao, C. L. Wilkins, J. Org. Chem. 60, 532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lidberg, R.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Love, S. P.

D. McBranch, B. R. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. M. Robinson, S. P. Love, Proc. SPIE 2284, 15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maggini, M.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malier, L.

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

Marciu, D.

J. R. Heflin, S. Wang, D. Marciu, J. W. Freeland, B. Jenkins, Polym. Prepr. 35, 238 (1994).

Marder, S.

Mattes, B.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

Mattes, B. R.

D. McBranch, B. R. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. M. Robinson, S. P. Love, Proc. SPIE 2284, 15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McBranch, D.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

D. McBranch, B. R. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. M. Robinson, S. P. Love, Proc. SPIE 2284, 15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D.

Meneghetti, M.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P. A.

Perry, J.

Perry, K.

Pong, R.

J. Shirk, R. Pong, F. Bartoli, A. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pottenger, T.

Prato, M.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rao, A.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Renier, A.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

Robinson, J. M.

D. McBranch, B. R. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. M. Robinson, S. P. Love, Proc. SPIE 2284, 15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scorrano, G.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J.

J. Shirk, R. Pong, F. Bartoli, A. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, R.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smilowitz, L.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

Snow, A.

J. Shirk, R. Pong, F. Bartoli, A. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R.

Tutt, L.

A. Kost, L. Tutt, M. Klein, T. Dougherty, W. Elias, Opt. Lett. 18, 334 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tutt, T. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Tutt, A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswaran, U.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

J. R. Heflin, S. Wang, D. Marciu, J. W. Freeland, B. Jenkins, Polym. Prepr. 35, 238 (1994).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, C. L.

J. C. Hummelen, B. W. Knight, F. Lepec, F. Wudl, J. Yao, C. L. Wilkins, J. Org. Chem. 60, 532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Withers, J.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

Wudl, F.

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

J. C. Hummelen, B. W. Knight, F. Lepec, F. Wudl, J. Yao, C. L. Wilkins, J. Org. Chem. 60, 532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

J. C. Hummelen, B. W. Knight, F. Lepec, F. Wudl, J. Yao, C. L. Wilkins, J. Org. Chem. 60, 532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, P. Innocenzi, M. Guglielmi, A. Renier, R. Signorini, M. Meneghetti, R. Bozio, Adv. Mater. 7, 404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Bentivegna, M. Canva, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Chaput, L. Malier, J.-P. Boilot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Shirk, R. Pong, F. Bartoli, A. Snow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1880 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Org. Chem.

J. C. Hummelen, B. W. Knight, F. Lepec, F. Wudl, J. Yao, C. L. Wilkins, J. Org. Chem. 60, 532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. Tutt, A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

Y. Wang, J. Holden, A. Rao, P. Eklund, U. Venkateswaran, D. Eastwood, R. Lidberg, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Prepr.

J. R. Heflin, S. Wang, D. Marciu, J. W. Freeland, B. Jenkins, Polym. Prepr. 35, 238 (1994).

Proc. SPIE

D. McBranch, L. Smilowitz, V. Klimov, J. Robinson, B. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, N. Borrelli, J. Withers, Proc. SPIE 2530, 195 (1995).

D. McBranch, B. R. Mattes, A. Koskelo, J. M. Robinson, S. P. Love, Proc. SPIE 2284, 15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

L. Tutt, T. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of (a) 5,6 PCBCR and (b) 6,6 PCBCR and (c) schematic energy-level diagram for the reverse-saturable-absorption mechanism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ground-state absorption cross section σ0 (left axis) and −δT/T (right axis) for (a) C60, (b) 5,6 PCBCR, and (c) 6,6 PCBCR. −δT/T is shown for two delay times for each material: 20 ps (dashed curve) and 500 ps (thinner solid curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity-dependent transmission at 532 nm for C60 (filled triangles), 6,6 PCBCR (open circles), and 5,6 PCBCR (filled squares). The low-intensity transmission for each sample is 50%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity-dependent transmission for C60 at 532 nm (open squares, low-intensity transmission T = 80%) and 700 nm (filled squares T = 80%) and for 6,6 PCBCR at 700 nm (open circles, T = 80%; filled circles, T = 50%).

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