Abstract

Using our cavity-enhanced frequency modulation technique, we obtained the saturated signal of the weakly absorbing gas C2HD for the P(5) line of the (ν2 + 3ν3) overtone band at 1.064 μm. An absorption sensitivity of 1.2 × 10−10 (1.8 × 10−12/cm) has been obtained. The absolute frequency of the line center is established (within ±2.6 kHz) with respect to a doubled Nd:YAG laser/I2 frequency reference. The short-term stability, limited by the available signal-to-noise ratio, currently is 1 × 10−11 at 1 s, improving to 5 × 10−13 at 1000 s. The measured pressure-broadening rate is 34.7(0.8) kHz/mTorr (260 ± 6.1 kHz/Pa). Selection of slow molecules gave a linewidth four times narrower than the room-temperature transit-time limit.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Fritschel, R. Weiss, Appl. Opt. 31, 1910 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. SPIE 1121, 478 (1989).
  4. P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).
  6. J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Junger, S. Waltman, in Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).
  7. M. de Labachlelerie, K. Nakagawa, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Cerez, A. Brillet, C. N. Man-Pichot, R. Felder, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 29, 352 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. Borde, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Temsamani, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, Mol. Phys. 79, 359 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. The 150-kHz servo bandwidth leads to a gain of ~70 dB at our 514-Hz cavity dither frequency.
  12. R. L. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1015 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. de Labachlelerie, K. Nakagawa, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Temsamani, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, Mol. Phys. 79, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. SPIE 1121, 478 (1989).

1980 (1)

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, C. N. Man-Pichot, R. Felder, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 29, 352 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. J. Borde, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bagayev, S. N.

See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Barger, R. L.

R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Borde, C. J.

C. J. Borde, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Brillet, A.

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, C. N. Man-Pichot, R. Felder, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 29, 352 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cerez, P.

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, C. N. Man-Pichot, R. Felder, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 29, 352 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chebotayev, V. P.

See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

de Labachelerie, M.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Labachlelerie, M.

Dmitriyev, A. K.

See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Dube, P.

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

Eickhoff, M.

P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, C. N. Man-Pichot, R. Felder, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 29, 352 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

Hall, J. L.

P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Borde, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Junger, S. Waltman, in Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

Herman, M.

M. Temsamani, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, Mol. Phys. 79, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hummer, D. G.

C. J. Borde, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Junger, P.

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Junger, S. Waltman, in Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

Jungner, P.

P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
[CrossRef]

Katsuda, T.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kunasz, C. V.

C. J. Borde, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Junger, S. Waltman, in Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

Mak, A. A.

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. SPIE 1121, 478 (1989).

Man-Pichot, C. N.

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, C. N. Man-Pichot, R. Felder, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 29, 352 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Muravitsky, S. G.

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. SPIE 1121, 478 (1989).

Nakagawa, K.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. de Labachlelerie, K. Nakagawa, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nekrasov, Yu. V.

See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

M. de Labachlelerie, K. Nakagawa, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Om, A. E.

See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Orlov, O. A.

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. SPIE 1121, 478 (1989).

Shelkovnikov, A. S.

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Skvortsov, B. N.

See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. L.

Swartz, S.

P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Junger, S. Waltman, in Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

Temsamani, M.

M. Temsamani, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, Mol. Phys. 79, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ustyugov, V. I.

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. SPIE 1121, 478 (1989).

Vander Auwera, J.

M. Temsamani, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, Mol. Phys. 79, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Waltman, S.

P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Junger, S. Waltman, in Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

Weiss, R.

Ye, J.

P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Junger, S. Waltman, in Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

See, e.g., S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Yu. V. Nekrasov, B. N. Skvortsov, Appl. Phys. B 52, 63 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

P. Jungner, M. Eickhoff, S. Swartz, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, S. Waltman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151 (1995); M. L. Eickhoff, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Cerez, A. Brillet, C. N. Man-Pichot, R. Felder, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 29, 352 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mol. Phys. (1)

M. Temsamani, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, Mol. Phys. 79, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Nakagawa, T. Katsuda, A. S. Shelkovnikov, M. de Labachelerie, M. Ohtsu, Opt. Commun. 107, 369 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. J. Borde, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. SPIE 1121, 478 (1989).

Other (3)

L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

J. L. Hall, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Swartz, P. Junger, S. Waltman, in Fifth Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J. C. Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, to be published).

The 150-kHz servo bandwidth leads to a gain of ~70 dB at our 514-Hz cavity dither frequency.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrometer setup for precision scanning of the C2HD overtone resonance at 1.06 μm. Our sensitive detection concept is shown by EOM1 phase modulating the laser beam at the cavity free-spectral-range frequency, providing (frequency-) noise-immune heterodyne detection of the transmitted light. PZT’s, piezoelectric transducer; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; APD, avalanche photodiode; DBM, double-balanced mixer; PD, photodiode; VCO, voltage-controlled oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency scan of the resonance line shape and overlaid theoretical fit based on Wahlquist’s modulation-broadening formalism. Fit residuals (5×) are shown by the lower curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pressure-broadening measurements of line P (5) in the 12C2HD (ν2 + 3ν3) overtone band.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

With low power and gas pressure, slow molecules give a line width of four times below the transit limit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time record of the beat frequency between the two NPRO’s, one locked on the C2HD overtone transition, the other frequency doubled and locked on an I2 reference at 532 nm, which is 5252.2254 ± 0.0026 MHz lower. The Allan variance is calculated from these data.

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