Abstract

We show for what is believed to be the first time that it is possible to generate 10,000 rapid write, read, and erase cycles optically in an azobenzene sidechain liquid-crystalline polyester. We do this by exposing the film alternately to visible light from an argon laser at 488 nm and ultraviolet light from a krypton laser at 351 nm. The efficiency of the system shows several exponential decays, presumably associated with the azobenzene chromophores’ aligning out of the plane of the film and the lifetime of the cis state of the azobenzene. A local temperature increase may also play a role. However, there is enough contrast even after 10,000 cycles to permit a clear distinction between the maximum and the minimum anisotropy. As the anisotropy is stable between erasures, this method could have immediate applications for optical storage.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. P. Roth, Rewritable Optical Storage Technology (Meckler, London, 1991).
  2. G. S. Kumar, D. C. Neckers, Chem. Rev. 89, 1915 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987); K. Anderle, R. Birenheide, M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 477 (1989); M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1428 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Sielser, P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 17, 1234 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).
  8. A. G. Chen, D. J. Brady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Photoinduced anisotropy measurements in liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyesters,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  11. R. Ortler, C. Bräuchle, A. Miller, G. Riepl, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 189 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1995

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Sielser, P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. G. Chen, D. J. Brady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1989

R. Ortler, C. Bräuchle, A. Miller, G. Riepl, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 189 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kumar, D. C. Neckers, Chem. Rev. 89, 1915 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987); K. Anderle, R. Birenheide, M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 477 (1989); M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1428 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Andruzzi, F.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Sielser, P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 17, 1234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Brady, D. J.

A. G. Chen, D. J. Brady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bräuchle, C.

R. Ortler, C. Bräuchle, A. Miller, G. Riepl, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 189 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A. G.

A. G. Chen, D. J. Brady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987); K. Anderle, R. Birenheide, M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 477 (1989); M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1428 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, U.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Holme, C.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Holme, N. C. R.

N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Photoinduced anisotropy measurements in liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyesters,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Hvilsted, S.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Sielser, P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 17, 1234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Photoinduced anisotropy measurements in liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyesters,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Kulinna, C.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Sielser, P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. S.

G. S. Kumar, D. C. Neckers, Chem. Rev. 89, 1915 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Magagnini, P. L.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Miller, A.

R. Ortler, C. Bräuchle, A. Miller, G. Riepl, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 189 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Neckers, D. C.

G. S. Kumar, D. C. Neckers, Chem. Rev. 89, 1915 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ortler, R.

R. Ortler, C. Bräuchle, A. Miller, G. Riepl, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 189 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paci, M.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Pedersen, M.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Ramanujam, P. S.

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Sielser, P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 17, 1234 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Photoinduced anisotropy measurements in liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyesters,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Riepl, G.

R. Ortler, C. Bräuchle, A. Miller, G. Riepl, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 189 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. P.

J. P. Roth, Rewritable Optical Storage Technology (Meckler, London, 1991).

Sielser, H. W.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Sielser, P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Siesler, H. W.

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Tassi, E. L.

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Todorov, T.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wendorff, J. H.

M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987); K. Anderle, R. Birenheide, M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 477 (1989); M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1428 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zebger, I.

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. G. Chen, D. J. Brady, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

G. S. Kumar, D. C. Neckers, Chem. Rev. 89, 1915 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Sielser, P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun.

M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987); K. Anderle, R. Birenheide, M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 477 (1989); M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1428 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Ortler, C. Bräuchle, A. Miller, G. Riepl, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 10, 189 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, “Photoinduced anisotropy measurements in liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyesters,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

P. S. Ramanujam, C. Holme, S. Hvilsted, M. Pedersen, F. Andruzzi, M. Paci, E. L. Tassi, P. L. Magagnini, U. Hoffman, I. Zebger, H. W. Siesler, “Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage,”Polym. Adv. Tech. (to be published).

J. P. Roth, Rewritable Optical Storage Technology (Meckler, London, 1991).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for writing, reading, and erasing optical anisotropy in a thin film of a sidechain liquid-crystalline polyester.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Anisotropy induced in the film for 10,000 cycles. Several exponential decays can be seen in the envelope. The greatest decrease takes place within the first 200 cycles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Expanded region of Fig. 2 showing cycles 5000–5009. A, Time at which the writing laser is turned on; B, time at which the writing laser is turned off; C, time at which the erasing laser is turned on; D, time at which the erasing laser is turned off. The write laser is on for 500 ms, and the erase laser is on for 200 ms.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Laser Specifications

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