Abstract

Spatial mode filters based on multimode interference couplers (MMI’s) that offer the possibility of splitting off antisymmetric from symmetric modes are presented, and realizations of these filters in InGaAsP/InP are demonstrated. Measured suppression of the antisymmetric first-order modes at the output for the symmetric mode is better than 18 dB. Such MMI’s are useful for monolithically integrating mode filters with all-optical devices, which are controlled through an antisymmetric first-order mode. The filtering out of optical control signals is necessary for cascading all-optical devices. Another application is the improvement of on–off ratios in optical switches.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, P. A. Besse, G. Guekos, H. Melchiorin Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper ThQ1.

1995 (2)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. PenningsJ. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. MelchiorAppl. Opt. 34, 6898 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. MelchiorAppl. Opt. 33, 3905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. SmitJ. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. BaranAppl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. Burns, A. FennerIEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 16, 446 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

Bachmann, M.

Baran, J. E.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. BaranAppl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. MelchiorAppl. Opt. 34, 6898 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. MelchiorAppl. Opt. 33, 3905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. SmitJ. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Hess, J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, H. Melchiorin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 327.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, P. A. Besse, G. Guekos, H. Melchiorin Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper ThQ1.

Bryngdahl, O.

Burns, W.

W. Burns, A. FennerIEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 16, 446 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

J. W. Pedersen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, P. Demeesterin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 331.

Eckner, J.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, P. A. Besse, G. Guekos, H. Melchiorin Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper ThQ1.

Fenner, A.

W. Burns, A. FennerIEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 16, 446 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Groen, F. H.

J. W. Pedersen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, P. Demeesterin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 331.

Guekos, G.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, P. A. Besse, G. Guekos, H. Melchiorin Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper ThQ1.

Heaton, R. W. J.

Hess, R.

R. Hess, J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, H. Melchiorin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 327.

Jenkins, R. M.

Kogelnik, H.

Leuthold, J.

R. Hess, J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, H. Melchiorin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 327.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, P. A. Besse, G. Guekos, H. Melchiorin Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper ThQ1.

Melchior, H.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. MelchiorAppl. Opt. 34, 6898 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. MelchiorAppl. Opt. 33, 3905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. SmitJ. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Hess, J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, H. Melchiorin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 327.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, P. A. Besse, G. Guekos, H. Melchiorin Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper ThQ1.

Metaal, E. G.

J. W. Pedersen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, P. Demeesterin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 331.

Oei, Y. S.

J. W. Pedersen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, P. Demeesterin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 331.

Pedersen, J. W.

J. W. Pedersen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, P. Demeesterin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 331.

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. PenningsJ. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perlmutter, P.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. BaranAppl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. BaranAppl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. SmitJ. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. PenningsJ. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. SmitJ. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van der Tol, J. J. G. M.

J. W. Pedersen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, P. Demeesterin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 331.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, J. E. BaranAppl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1230 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

W. Burns, A. FennerIEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 16, 446 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. PenningsJ. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. SmitJ. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

R. Hess, J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, H. Melchiorin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 327.

J. W. Pedersen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. G. Metaal, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, P. Demeesterin Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 331.

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, P. A. Besse, G. Guekos, H. Melchiorin Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper ThQ1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mapping characteristics of two MMI’s of the same length for (a) a symmetric zero-order mode (filled shapes) and (b) a zero-order mode and an antisymmetric first-order mode (open shapes). (a) Using an input guide at the center of the MMI, we map the symmetric mode for lengths L = 3/NLc, with N = 4K and K = 1, onto one central output guide. (b) Using the central input guide for an antisymmetric mode, we map the antisymmetric mode onto the two outer output guides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial mode filters with MMI couplers separating symmetric zero-order and antisymmetric first-order modes. The symmetric mode A is mapped onto K symmetric output modes. The antisymmetric mode B is mapped onto 2 symmetric and K − 1 antisymmetric output modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Device consisting of two MMI’s in sequence used to couple a zero-order and a first-order mode into the same waveguide and then to separate them. The first MMI generates the first-order mode B′ and lets the zero-order mode A pass depending on the input guide used. The second MMI is the proposed filter MMI of Fig. 2(a), which maps the first-order mode B′ onto output modes b2 and b3 and the zero-order mode A onto the output mode a.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fundamental and first-order mode-separation capabilities of the MMI filter measured with the structure of Fig. 3. (a) Transmission of the zero-order mode from input mode A to output mode a with spurious cross talk to outputs b1 and b4 and b2 and b3. (b) Input mode B converted to first-order mode B′ in the converter–combiner MMI, which demonstrates the filtering efficiency for the first-order mode at output a. The first-order mode is instead mapped onto outputs b2 and b3. A part of the light from the generation of the first-order mode can be found at outputs b1 and b4.

Equations (2)

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L c = 4 n W 2 3 λ .
L N = 3 L c / N ,

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