Abstract

We report modeling, fabrication, and characterization of tapered waveguides, using periodically segmented annealed proton exchange in LiNbO3. For a taper transforming the 1/e full width (intensity) mode size from 6.0 μm × 4.4 μm to 2.0 μm × 1.3 μm, 0.4-dB excess loss was observed. The large, slightly elliptical mode can ease coupling to single-mode fibers and circular free-space beams. The same taper structure was used to excite a highly multimoded (13 modes) waveguide with more than 95% of the power stably launched into the lowest-order mode. This function is useful for nonlinear waveguide devices, such as difference-frequency generators, in which modes at highly disparate wavelengths interact.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Sanders, D. W. Nam, R. J. Lang, M. L. Bortz, M. M. Fejerin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 287.
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yooin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerOpt. Lett. 16, 1844 (1991).
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  17. R. Regener, W. SohlerAppl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (3)

Z. Weissman, I. HendelJ. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Dorgeuille, B. Mersali, S. Francois, G. Hervé-Gruyer, M. FilocheOpt. Lett. 20, 581 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nir, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, D. BrooksElectron. Lett. 31, 186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (4)

C. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, M. KawaharaAppl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, J. J. BurkeOpt. Lett. 17, 1195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, S. Sinha, R. V. RamaswamyIEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1049 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, A. HardyJ. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Z. Weissman, A. HardyElectron. Lett. 28, 1514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerAppl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerOpt. Lett. 16, 1844 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. Shahar, W. J. Tomlinson, A. Yi-Yan, M. Seto, R. J. DeriPhys. Lett. 56, 1098 (1990).

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Regener, W. SohlerAppl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Bortz, M. L.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerAppl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerOpt. Lett. 16, 1844 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sanders, D. W. Nam, R. J. Lang, M. L. Bortz, M. M. Fejerin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 287.

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yooin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

Brooks, D.

D. Nir, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, D. BrooksElectron. Lett. 31, 186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J. J.

Chein, C. W.

Cheng, H. C.

Deri, R. J.

A. Shahar, W. J. Tomlinson, A. Yi-Yan, M. Seto, R. J. DeriPhys. Lett. 56, 1098 (1990).

Dorgeuille, F.

Feit, M. D.

Fejer, M. M.

M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerOpt. Lett. 16, 1844 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerAppl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yooin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

S. Sanders, D. W. Nam, R. J. Lang, M. L. Bortz, M. M. Fejerin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 287.

Filoche, M.

Fleck, J. A.

Francois, S.

Hardy, A.

D. Nir, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, D. BrooksElectron. Lett. 31, 186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, A. HardyJ. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, A. HardyElectron. Lett. 28, 1514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hendel, I.

Z. Weissman, I. HendelJ. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H.

Hertz, H. M.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerAppl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hervé-Gruyer, G.

Kawahara, M.

C. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, M. KawaharaAppl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

Lang, R. J.

S. Sanders, D. W. Nam, R. J. Lang, M. L. Bortz, M. M. Fejerin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 287.

Li, L.

Lim, E. J.

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerAppl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mersali, B.

Nam, D. W.

S. Sanders, D. W. Nam, R. J. Lang, M. L. Bortz, M. M. Fejerin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 287.

Nir, D.

D. Nir, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, D. BrooksElectron. Lett. 31, 186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okayama, H.

C. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, M. KawaharaAppl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

H. S. Kim, S. Sinha, R. V. RamaswamyIEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1049 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswany, R. V.

Regener, R.

R. Regener, W. SohlerAppl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ruschin, S.

D. Nir, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, D. BrooksElectron. Lett. 31, 186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S.

S. Sanders, D. W. Nam, R. J. Lang, M. L. Bortz, M. M. Fejerin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 287.

Serkland, D.

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yooin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

Seto, M.

A. Shahar, W. J. Tomlinson, A. Yi-Yan, M. Seto, R. J. DeriPhys. Lett. 56, 1098 (1990).

Shahar, A.

A. Shahar, W. J. Tomlinson, A. Yi-Yan, M. Seto, R. J. DeriPhys. Lett. 56, 1098 (1990).

Shinozaki, K.

C. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, M. KawaharaAppl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, S.

H. S. Kim, S. Sinha, R. V. RamaswamyIEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1049 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

H. Herrmann, W. SohlerJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 278 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Regener, W. SohlerAppl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

Tomlinson, W. J.

A. Shahar, W. J. Tomlinson, A. Yi-Yan, M. Seto, R. J. DeriPhys. Lett. 56, 1098 (1990).

Watanabe, K.

C. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, M. KawaharaAppl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, Z.

Z. Weissman, I. HendelJ. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, A. HardyJ. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, A. HardyElectron. Lett. 28, 1514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, M. KawaharaAppl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yi-Yan, A.

A. Shahar, W. J. Tomlinson, A. Yi-Yan, M. Seto, R. J. DeriPhys. Lett. 56, 1098 (1990).

Yoo, S. J. B.

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yooin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Regener, W. SohlerAppl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. J. Lim, H. M. Hertz, M. L. Bortz, M. M. FejerAppl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2207 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, M. KawaharaAppl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Z. Weissman, A. HardyElectron. Lett. 28, 1514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Nir, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, D. BrooksElectron. Lett. 31, 186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. S. Kim, S. Sinha, R. V. RamaswamyIEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1049 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Z. Weissman, A. HardyJ. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, I. HendelJ. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Shahar, W. J. Tomlinson, A. Yi-Yan, M. Seto, R. J. DeriPhys. Lett. 56, 1098 (1990).

Other (2)

M. L. Bortz, D. Serkland, M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yooin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

S. Sanders, D. W. Nam, R. J. Lang, M. L. Bortz, M. M. Fejerin Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 287.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an adiabatic taper using a periodically segmented structure integrated with a multimoded waveguide designed for difference-frequency generation (DFG).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output intensity profiles showing modal interference. Open and filled circles were measured at two wavelengths near 780 nm; solid curves are fits for 0 and π relative phases between the fundamental and the first allowed high-order transverse modes (a) in the width direction and (b) in the depth direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured output intensity profiles for different input coupling conditions for launching the light into a waveguide without any taper (left) and with a concave taper (right). In this example, waveguides are moved in the width direction ~1.7 μm relative to the incident beam to change coupling conditions. Output is stably in the fundamental mode after launching through the taper, unlike when it is launched directly into the waveguide.

Equations (1)

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Δ n eq = Γ Δ n ,

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