Abstract

We report the experimental observation of steady-state photorefractive Y junctions and sequences of high-order dark photorefractive screening solitons in a biased bulk strontium barium niobate crystal. The parameters that characterize the properties of the high-order dark screening solitons are measured and compared with the theoretical prediction for the fundamental dark screening soliton. The high-order dark solitons induce stable waveguides in one transverse dimension that can guide other, possibly very intense, beams of different wavelengths.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Lett. 15, 471 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. De La Fuente, A. Barthelemy, C. Froehly, Opt. Lett. 16, 793 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Luther-Davies, X. Yang, Opt. Lett. 17, 496 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992); G. Duree, J. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Steady-state self-focusing effects were first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Iturbe-Castillo, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. Klein, B. Wechsler, Opt. Commun. 118, 515 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (4)

D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iturbe-Castillo, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. Klein, B. Wechsler, Opt. Commun. 118, 515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steady-state self-focusing effects were first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992); G. Duree, J. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies, X. Yang, Opt. Lett. 17, 496 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

R. De La Fuente, A. Barthelemy, C. Froehly, Opt. Lett. 16, 793 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Andersen, D. R.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthelemy, A.

Bashaw, M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. I.

Chen, Z.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

Crosignani, B.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992); G. Duree, J. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Fuente, R.

DiPorto, P.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

Fejer, M. M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992); G. Duree, J. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, C.

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M.

Iturbe-Castillo, M.

M. Iturbe-Castillo, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. Klein, B. Wechsler, Opt. Commun. 118, 515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steady-state self-focusing effects were first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

Kaplan, A. E.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, M.

M. Iturbe-Castillo, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. Klein, B. Wechsler, Opt. Commun. 118, 515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Luther-Davies, B.

Marquez-Aguilar, P.

Steady-state self-focusing effects were first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

Morin, M.

Oliver, M. K.

Regan, J. J.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G.

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J.

M. Iturbe-Castillo, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. Klein, B. Wechsler, Opt. Commun. 118, 515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steady-state self-focusing effects were first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992); G. Duree, J. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Smith, P. W. E.

Stepanov, S.

M. Iturbe-Castillo, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. Klein, B. Wechsler, Opt. Commun. 118, 515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steady-state self-focusing effects were first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, E. M.

Vysloukh, V.

Steady-state self-focusing effects were first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B.

M. Iturbe-Castillo, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. Klein, B. Wechsler, Opt. Commun. 118, 515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Yang, X.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992); G. Duree, J. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Steady-state self-focusing effects were first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Iturbe-Castillo, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. Klein, B. Wechsler, Opt. Commun. 118, 515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992); G. Duree, J. Schultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photographs and (b) horizontal profiles of the input beam (488-nm), the normally diffracting output beam, and the Y-junction soliton output beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photographs and (b) horizontal profiles of the red beam guided by the waveguide induced by the Y-junction dark soliton shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized soliton width Δξ versus u. Solid curve, theory of the one-dimensional fundamental dark soliton. Dashed curve, experimental measurements of Y-junction dark solitons. (b) Photograph showing breakup of the Y-junction soliton as the experimental parameters of Δξ deviate more than 25% from the soliton curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transition from a Y-junction dark-soliton pair to an even number of higher-order solitons under an even initial condition (amplitude jump). (b) Transition from a fundamental dark soliton to an odd number of higher-order solitons under an odd initial condition (phase jump).

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